Influence of cooling conditions on microstructure and mechanical property of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu lead-free solder
Keywords:Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder, Cooling conditions, Microstructure, Mechanical property
This research has investigated the influence of cooling conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties i.e., tensile strength and microhardness of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu lead-free solder. In the experiments, casting was performed at 300℃ with comparison between copper and stainless steel molds under slow and fast cooled conditions. X-ray diffractometer confirmed the presence of Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn phases in the solder matrix. Lead-free solder solidified under slow cooled conditions exhibited -Sn matrix with larger grain growth as compared to the fast cooled solder. The eutectic area of intermetallic compound (IMC) was found to increase with cooling rate. The tensile strength of slow cooled solder was greater than fast cooled solder for both molds. In addition, the microhardness of the solder was also influenced by cooling rate. The dimples size of facture surface was decreased by higher cooling rate. A greater eutectic area of the Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn phases of initial -Sn matrix lead to lower values of the mechanical property from fast cooled conditions.
M. Zhao, L. Zhang, Z. Q. Liu, M. Y. Xiong, and L. Sun, “Structure and properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solders in electronics packaging,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 20, pp. 421-444, 2019.
L. Gao, S. Xue, L. Zhang, Z. Sheng, F. Ji, W. Dai, S.L. Yu, and G. Zeng, “Effect of alloying elements on properties and microstructures of SnAgCu solders,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 87, pp. 2025-2034, 2010.
S. Li, X. Wang, Z. Liu, Y. Jiu, S. Zhang, J. Geng, X. Chen, S. Wu, P. He, and W. Long, “Corrosion behavior of Sn-based lead-free solder alloys: a review,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 31, pp. 9076–9090, 2020.
S. N. Alam, P. Mishra, and R. Kumar, “Effect of Ag on Sn-Cu and Sn-Zn lead free solders,” Materials Science- Poland, vol. 33, pp. 317-330, 2015.
K. N. Reeve, J. R. Holaday, S. M. Choquette, I. E. Anderson, and C.A. Handwerker, “Advances in Pb-free solder microstructure control and interconnect design,” Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, vol. 37, pp. 369-386, 2016.
J. Powell-Turner, P. D. Antill, and R. E. Fisher, “The United Kingdom Ministry of Defence and the European union’s electrical and electronic equipment directives,” Resources Policy, vol. 49, pp. 422-432, 2016.
A. Olofinjana, R. Haque, M. Mathir, and N. Y. Voo, “Studies of the solidification characteristics in Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi solder alloys,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 30, pp. 596-603, 2019.
T. Chellaih, G. Kumar, and K. N. Prabhu, “Effect of thermal contact heat transfer on solidification of Pb-Sn and Pb-free solders,” Materials and Design, vol. 28, pp. 1006-1011, 2007.
L. Sun, and L. Zhang, “Properties and microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X lead-free solder joints in electronic packaging,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Article ID 639028, pp. 1-16, 2015.
M. Drienovsky, M. Palcut, P. Priputen, E. Cuninková, O. Bošák, M. Kubliha, and L. R. Trnková, “Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints prepared by induction heating,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Article ID 1724095, pp. 1-9, 2020.
P. Manoj Kumar, G. Gergely, D. K. Horváth, and Z. Gácsi, “Investigating the microstructural and mechanical properties of pure lead-free soldering materials (SAC305 & SAC405),” Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 18, pp. 49-57, 2018.
P. Roubaud, G. Ng, G. Henshall, and R. Bulwith, “Impact of intermetallic growth on the mechanical strength of Pb-free BGA assemblies,” Proceedings of APEX 2001 on January 16-18, 2001 in San Diego, CA.
W. Kittidacha, A. Kanjanavikat, and K. Vattananiyom, “Effect of SAC alloy composition on drop and temp cycle reliability of BGA with NiAu pad finish,” 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2008, pp. 1074-1079, 2008
M. S. Gumaan, R. M. Shalaby, E. A. M. Ali, and M. Kamal, “Copper effects in mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of rapidly solidified eutectic Sn–Ag alloy,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 29, pp. 8886-8894, 2018.
J. J. Sundelin, S. T. Nurmi, T. K. Lepistö, and E. O. Ristolainen, “Mechanical and microstructural properties of SnAgCu solder joints,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 420, pp. 55-62, 2006.
H. T. Lee and K. C. Huang, “Effects of cooling rate on the microstructure and morphology of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 45, pp. 182-190, 2016.
M. Z. Yahaya, N. A. Salleh, S. Kheawhom, B. Illes, M. F. Mohd Nazeri, and A. A. Mohamad, “Selective etching and hardness properties of quenched SAC305 solder joints,” Soldering and Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32, pp. 225-233, 2020.
K. K. Xu, L. Zhang, L. L. Gao, N. Jiang, L. Zhang, and S. J. Zhong, “Review of microstructure and properties of low temperature lead-free solder in electronic packaging,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 21, pp. 689-711, 2020.
R. Pandher, and T. Lawlor, “Effect of silver in common lead-free alloys,” International Conference on Soldering and Reliabilty, Toronto, pp. 1-14, 2009.
K. Kanlayasiri, and T. Ariga, “Influence of thermal aging on microhardness and microstructure of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu-xIn lead-free solders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 504, pp. L5-L9, 2010.
C. Wei, Y. C. Liu, Y. J. Han, J. B. Wan, and K. Yang, “Micro-structures of eutectic Sn-Ag-Zn solder solidified with different cooling rates,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 464, pp. 301-305, 2008.
ASTM E112-10, “ASTM International, E112: Standard test methods for determining average grain size,” ASTM International, vol. 2010, pp. 1-26, 2010.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.