Effect of zinc-hydroxo species on the growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures

Authors

  • Nontakoch Siriphongsapak Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140, Thailand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-5089
  • Somyod Denchitcharoen Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140, Thailand

Keywords:

Zinc-hydroxo species, Thermodynamic simulation, Hydrothermal growth, 1-D ZnO nanostructures

Abstract

One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures were grown on ZnO seed layer by hydrothermal method using zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as precursors. The concentrations of NaOH and Zn(NO3)2 were varied from 40 mM to 680 mM and kept constant, respectively. Effects of increasing the hydroxide ions on the concentration of zinc-hydroxo species in the solution were studied using thermodynamic simulation software. The simulated results showed that Zn(OH)2 and Zn(OH)3- concentrations tended to decrease but Zn(OH)42- was non-linearly increased when the concentration of NaOH at room temperature was increased. After the growth of ZnO, the samples were characterized by FESEM and UV-vis to investigate the morphology and transmittance spectra, respectively. The results showed that the rod density of ZnO nanostructures was decreased due to lower concentrations of Zn(OH)2 and Zn(OH)3- species affecting ZnO nucleation mode. On the other hand, Zn(OH)42- was competitively higher and involved in growing 1-D ZnO nanostructures on the nucleation layer resulting in larger diameter and longer length of nanostructures. For the UV-vis results, the % transmittance spectra in visible region of grown ZnO nanostructures with NaOH concentrations from 40 to 360 mM were more than 70% but too low transmittance for 520 mM.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 72, pp. 1-29, 2009.

C. Yu, Z. Tong, S. Li, and Y. Yin, “Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of ZnO using tourmaline,” Materials Letters, vol. 240, pp. 161-164, 2019.

K. Govatsi, A. Seferlis, S. G. Neophytides, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Influence of the morphology of ZnO nanowires on the photoelectrochemical water splitting efficiency,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 43, pp. 4866-4879, 2018.

Q. Ma, Y. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Song, X. Fu, H. Li, S. Chu, and Y. Chen, “Facile synthesis of ZnO morphological evolution with tunable growth habits: Achieving superior gas-sensing properties of hemispherical ZnO/Au heterostructures for triethylamine,” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, vol. 106, pp. 180-186, 2019.

N. A. Hammed, A. A. Aziz, A. I. Usman, and M. A. Qaeed, “The sonochemical synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods and their UV photodetection properties: Effect of ZnO buffer layer,” Ultrasonics – Sonochemistry, vol. 50, pp. 172-181, 2019.

M. Taheri, H. Abdizadeh, and M. R. Golobostanfard, “Formation of urchin-like ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition for photocatalytic application,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 725, pp. 291-301, 2017.

N. I. M. Rosli, S.-M. Lam, J.-C. Sin, and A. R. Mohamed, “Surfacetant-free precipitation synthesis, growth mechanism and photocatalytic studies of ZnO nanostructures,” Materials Letters, vol. 160, pp. 259-262, 2015.

M. Laurenti, N. Garino, S. Porro, M. Fontana, and C. Gerbaldi, “Zinc oxide nanostructures by chemical vapour deposition as anodes for Li-ion batteries,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 640, pp. 321-326, 2015.

S. Baruah, and J. Dutta, “Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nano-structures,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 10, pp. 1-18, 2009.

C. Chevalier-César, M. Capochichi-Gnambodee, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Growth mechanism studies of ZnO nanowire arrays via hydrothermal method,” Applied Physics A, vol. 115, pp. 953-960, 2014.

K. L. Foo, U. Hashim, K. Muhammad, and C. H. Voon, “Sol-gel synthesized zinc oxide nanorods and their structural and optical investigation for optoelectronic application,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 9, pp. 1-10, 2014.

R. Parize, J. Garnier, O. Chaix-Pluchery, C. Verrier, E. Appert, and V. Consonni, “Effects of hexamethylenetetramine on the nucleation and radial growth of ZnO nanowires by chemical bath deposition,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 120, pp. 5242-5250, 2016.

L. Vayssieres, “Growth of arrayed nanorods and nanowires of ZnO from aqueous solution,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, pp. 464-466, 2003.

Y. Zhang, and J. Mu, “Controllable synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures by simply tuning the ratio sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2007.

R. Wahab, S. G. Ansari, Y. S. Kim, M. Song, and H.-S. Shin, “The role of pH variation on the growth of zinc oxide nanostructures,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, pp. 4891-4896, 2009.

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 356, pp. 438-446, 2015.

A. El-Shaer, M. Abdelfatah, A. Basuni, and M. Mosaad, “Effect of KOH molarity and annealing temperature on ZnO nanostructure properties,” Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 56, pp. 1001-1009, 2018.

S. Yamabi, and H. Imai, “Growth conditions for wurtzite zinc oxide films in aqueous solutions,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 3773-3778, 2002.

R. B. Peterson, C. L. Fields, and B. A. Gregg, “Epitaxial chemical deposition of ZnO nanocolumns from NaOH solutions,” Langmuir, vol. 20, pp. 5114-5118, 2004.

J.-G. Fan, D. Dyer, G. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, “Nanocarpet effect: pattern formation during the wetting of vertically aligned nanorod arrays,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, pp. 2133-2138, 2004.

Z.-Q. Liu, Y. M. Ng, P. J. Tiong, R. A. A. Talip, N. Jasin, V. Y. M. Jong, and M. G. Tay, “Five-Coordinate Zinc(II) Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Activities of Bis-[(E)-2-hydroxy-N’-{1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylidenebenzohydrazido]dimethylsulfoxidezinc(II) Complex,” International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2017, pp. 1-8, 2017.

W. Stumm, and J. J. Morgan, Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. New Yok: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

T. L. Sounart, J. Liu, J. A. Voigt, M. Huo, E. D. Spoerke, and B. McKenzie, “Secondary Nucleation and Growth of ZnO,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, pp. 15786-15793, 2007.

M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, S. H. Hahn and E. J. Kim, “From Zn(OH)2 to ZnO: a study on the mechanism of phase transformation,” CrystEngComm, vol. 13, pp. 6024-6026, 2011.

M. C. Gelabert, “Supersaturation of aqueous species and hydrothermal crystal,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 418, pp. 167-175, 2015.

H. O. Chu, Q. Wang, Y. Shi, S. Song, W. Liu, S. Zhou, D. Gibson, Y. Alajlani, and C. Li, “Structural, optical properties and optical modelling of hydrothermal chemical growth derived ZnO nanowires,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 30, pp. 191-199, 2020.

B. Wei, K. Zheng, Y. Ji, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and X. Han, “Size-Dependent Bandgap Modulation of ZnO Nanowires by Tensile Strain,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 4595-4599, 2012.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-28

How to Cite

[1]
N. Siriphongsapak and S. Denchitcharoen, “Effect of zinc-hydroxo species on the growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures”, J. Met. Mater. Miner., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 47-52, Sep. 2021.

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles