Microwave-assisted ecofriendly silver nanoparticle synthesis by varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat: Assessing their antioxidant, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities


  • Mathivathani Kandiah School of Science, BMS, 591, Galle Road, Colombo 06, Colombo, Sri Lanka http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2590-6637
  • Laknee Nawamali DE SILVA School of Science, BMS, 591, Galle Road, Colombo 06, Colombo, Sri Lanka


Silver, Nanoparticles, Microwave – assisted, Antioxidant activity, Photocatalytic activity


Based on recent developments in the field of Nanobiotechnology, this study is aimed at the assessment of antioxidant, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat varieties (brown, yellow, purple, pink, salmon pink and white), where five varieties produced AgNPs except white. Antioxidant assays such as total flavonoid content, total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging assays such as ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical scavenging assays were performed. Photocatalytic activity was assessed by the degradation of the model dye methylene blue. Anti-bacterial activity was determined on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Performed assays indicated higher antioxidant contents and activities in AgNPs compared to water extracts. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration was obtained for AgNPs of brown variety indicating a higher antioxidant activity. Photocatalytic activity assessment on brown AgNPs of 3175 ppm and 212 ppm showed no difference in their rate constants indicating a similar photocatalytic activity for both concentrations. Antibacterial activity was higher in water extracts compared to AgNPs for both types of bacteria used. Biosynthesized AgNPs show a wide array of properties which could be beneficial in the treatment of free radical-related diseases, environmental pollution, and antibiotic resistance.


Download data is not yet available.


J. Jeevanandam, A. Barhoum, Y. S. Chan, A. Dufresne, and M. K. Danquah, "Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials: History, sources, toxicity and regulations," Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 1050-74, 2018.

P. I. Dolez, "Nanomaterials definitions, classifications, and applications," in Nanoengineering: Global approaches to health and safety issues, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, pp. 3-33.

P. Iqbal, J. A. Preece, and P. M. Mendes, "Nanotechnology: The “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches", in Supramolecular Chemistry: From molecules to nanomaterials, J. W. Steed, and P. A. Gale, Eds., West Sussex: Wiley, 2012, pp. 3589-3602.

N. H. Hong, Introduction to Nanomaterials: Basic properties, synthesis, and characterization, Cambridge: Elsevier Inc, 2019, pp. 1-19.

C. K. Ghosh, "Quantum effect on properties of nanomaterials," in Introduction to Nano Engineering Materials, A. Sengupta, and C. Sarkar, Eds., Berlin: Springer, 2015, pp. 73-111.

Y. Liu, S. Mai, N. Li, C. K. Y. Yiu, J. Mao, D. H. Pashley, and F. Tay, "Differences between top-down and bottom-up approaches in mineralizing thick, partially-demineralized collagen scaffolds", Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, pp. 1742-1751, 2011.

X. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, Z. Jiang, and M. Dong, "Micro-organism assisted synthesized nanoparticles for catalytic applications", Energies, vol. 12(190), 2019.

N. Kulkarni, and U. Muddapur, "Biosynthesis of metal nano-particles: A review", Journal of Nanotechnology, 2014.

V. Mody, R. Siwale, A. Singh, and H. Mody, "Introduction to metallic nanoparticles," Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 282-289, 2010.

R. Balachandar, P. Gurumoorthy, N. Karmegam, and H. Barabadi, "Plant-mediated synthesis, characterization and bactericidal potential of emerging silver nanoparticles using stem extract of Phyllanthus pinnatus: A recent advance in phytonanotechnology", Journal of Cluster Science, vol. 30, pp. 1481-1488, 2019.

V. V. Makarov, A. J. Love, O. V. Sinitsyna, S. S. Makarova, I. V. Yaminsky, M. E. Taliansky, and N. O. Kalinina, "Green nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants," Acta Naturae, vol. 6, pp. 35-44, 2014.

S. Iravani, H. Korbekandi, S. V. Mirmohammadi, and B. Zolfaghari, "Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Chemical, physical and biological methods," Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 385-406, 2014.

S. Arokiyaraj, M. V. Arasu, S. Vincent, N. U. Prakash, S. H. Choi, Y. K. Oh, K. C. Choi, and K. H. Kim, "Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum land its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: An in vitro study," International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp. 379-388, 2014.

S. M. Haqq, H. Pandey, M. Gerard, and A. Chattree, "Bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using Chrysanthemum coronarium flower extract and its’ in vitro antibacterial activity," International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, vol. 10, pp.209-213, 2018.

Y. He, Z. Du, H. Lv, Q. Jia, Z. Tang, X. Zheng, K. Zhang, and F. Zhao, "Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel," International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 1809-1815, 2013.

S. Jing, X. Zhang, and L. J. Yan, "Antioxidant activity, antitumor effect and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers," Oxidative Medicine and Cell Longevity, 2015.

Y. Anuj, K. Rewa, Y. Ashwani, J. P. M, S. Seweta, and P. Shashi, "Antioxidants and its functions in human body", Research in Environment and Life Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 1328-1331, 2016.

V. Lobo, A. Patil, A. Phatak, and N. Chandra, "Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health", Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 4, pp. 118-126, 2010.

E. M. Atta, N. H. Mohamed, and A. A. M. Abdelgawad, "Antioxidants: An Overview on the Natural and Synthetic Types", European Chemical Bulletin, vol. 6, pp. 365-406, 2017.

M. Mavaei, A. Chahardoli, Y. Shokoohinia, A. Khoshroo, and A. Fattahi, "One-step synthesized silver nanoparticles using isoimperatorin: Evaluation of photocatalytic, and electrochemical activities", Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1762, 2020.

S. Marimuthu, A. Jayanthi, and S. Malayandi, "Silver nano-particles in dye effluent treatment: A review on synthesis, treatment methods, mechanisms, photocatalytic degradation, toxic effects and mitigation of toxicity", Journal of Photo-chemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 205, 2020.

Y. N. Slavin, J. Asnis, U. O. Häfeli, and H. Bach, "Metal nanoparticles: Understanding the mechanisms behind anti-bacterial activity," Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 15, no. 65, 2017.

Y. Y. Loo, Y. Rukayadi, and C. H. Kuan, "In vitro anti-microbial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against selected gram-negative foodborne pathogens," Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 9, 2018.

B. R. Perera, and M. Kandiah, "Microwave assisted one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts from Vigna unguiculate: Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-microbial activities," International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, vol. 5, pp. 62-78, 2018.

R. Roghini, and K. Vijayalakshmi, "Phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of flavonoids andminerals in ethanolic extract of Citrus paradisi," International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, vol. 9, pp. 4859-4864, 2018.

N. Singh, A. Chatterjee, K. Chakraborty, S. Chatterjee, and J. Abraham, "Cytotoxic effect on MG-63 cell line and anti-microbial and antioxidant properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized with seed extracts of Capsicum sp," Records of Natural Products, vol. 10, pp. 47-57, 2016.

K. Sharma, G. Singh, G. Singh, M. Kumar, and V. Bhalla, "‘Silver nanoparticles': facile synthesis and their catalytic application for the degradation of dyes," RSC Advances, vol. 5, pp. 25781-25788, 2015.

H. I. Badiah, F. Seedeh, G. Supriyanto, and A. H. Zaidan, "Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the development in analysis method," IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 217, 2019.

N. Chouhan, "Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," in Silver Nanoparticles - Fabrication, Characterization and Applications, Khan Maaz, Ed., Intech-Open; 2018, pp. 21-58.

T. P. Kumar, P. Kalita, T. K. Barman, T. K.Chatterjee, and S. Maity, "Quantification of Total Flavonoid Content and antioxidant activity in comparison to a reference flavonoid as in vitro quality evaluation parameter for assessing bioactivity of biomarkers in herbal extracts or formulations," JPR: BioMedRx: An International Journal, vol. 1, pp. 757-66, 2013.

J. C. Sánchez-Rangel, J. Benavides, J. B. Heredia, L. Cisneros-Zevallos, and D. A. Jacobo-Velázquez, "The Folin-Ciocalteu assay revisited: Improvement of its specificity for total phenolic content determination," Analytical Methods, vol. 5, pp. 5990-5999, 2013.

D. Gupta, "Methods for determination of antioxidant capacity: A review," International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 6, pp. 546-566, 2015.

P. Prieto, M. Pineda, and M. Aguilar, "Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E", Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 269, pp. 337-341, 1999.

M. El Jemli, R. Kamal, I. Marmouzi, A. Zerrouki, Y. Cherrah, and K. Alaoui, "Radical-Scavenging activity and ferric reducing ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)", Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2016.

K. Pérez-Cruz, M. Moncada-Basualto, J. Morales-Valenzuela, G. Barriga-González, P. Navarrete-Encina, L. Núñez-Vergara, J. A. Squella, and C. Olea-Azar, "Synthesis and antioxidant study of new polyphenolic hybrid-coumarins," Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 11, pp. 525-537, 2018.

J. Gong, B. Chu, L. Gong, Z. Fang, X. Zhang, S. Qiu, J, Wang, Y. Xiang, G. Xiao, H. Yuan, and F, Zheng, "Comparison of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activities of fifteen Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. ‘Hangbaiju’ in China," Antioxidants, vol. 8, 2019.

L. Yang, A. Nuerbiye, P. Cheng, J. H. Wang, and H. Li, "Analysis of floral volatile components and antioxidant activity of different varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium," Molecules, vol. 22, no. 1790, 2017.

A. Phaniendra, D. B. Jestadi, and L. Periyasamy, "Free radicals: Properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases", Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 30, pp. 11-26, 2015.

N. Jadid, D. Hidayati, S. R. Hartanti, B. A. Arraniry, R. Y. Rachman, and W. Wikanta, "Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay". AIP Conference Proceedings, 2017.

K. Pyrzynska, and A. Pȩkal, "Application of free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to estimate the antioxidant capacity of food samples," Analytical Methods, vol. 5, pp. 4288-4295, 2013.

M. A. Khan, A. A. Rahman, S. Islam, P. Khandokhar, S. Parvin, B. Islam, M. Hossain, M. Rashid, G. Sadik, S. Nasrin, M. N. H. Mollah, and A. H. M. K. Alam, "A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)," BMC Research Notes, vol. 6, no. 24, 2013.

Y. Hangun-balkir and M. L. Mckenney, "Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews Determination of antioxidant activities of berries and resveratrol", Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47-53, 2012.

T. S. Himamura, Y. S. Umikura, T. Y. Amazaki, A. T. Ada, T. K. Ashiwagi, H. Ishikawa, T. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, H. Akiyama, and H. Ukeda, "Applicability of the DPPH Assay for Evaluating the Antioxidant Capacity of Food Additives – Inter-laboratory Evaluation Study," Analytical Sciences, vol. 30, pp. 717-721, 2014.

K. Roy, C. K. Sarkar, and C. K. Ghosh, "Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract," Applied Nanoscience, vol. 5, pp. 953-959, 2015.

P. C. Nagajyothi, S. V. P. Vattikuti, K. C. Devarayapalli, K. Yoo, and T. V. M. Sreekanth, "Green synthesis: Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes using metal and metal oxide nano-particles-latest trends and advancements," Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 50, pp. 2617-2723, 2019.

M. Phukan, "Characterizing the ion-selective nature of Fe0-based systems using azo dyes: Batch and column experiments," Freiberg Online Geoscience, vol. 42, 2015.

Y. Qing, L. Cheng, R. Li, G. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. Tang, J. Wang, H. Liu, and Y. Qin, "Potential antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and the optimization of orthopedic implants by advanced modification technologies," International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 13, pp. 3311-3327, 2018.

X. Yan, B. He, L. Liu, G. Qu, J. Shi, L. Hu L, and G. Jiang, "Antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Proteomics approach," Metallomics, vol. 10, pp. 557-564, 2018.

B. Le Ouay, and F. Stellacci, "Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles : A surface science insight," Nano Today, vol. 10, pp. 339-354, 2015.




How to Cite

M. Kandiah and L. N. . DE SILVA, “Microwave-assisted ecofriendly silver nanoparticle synthesis by varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat: Assessing their antioxidant, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities”, J. Met. Mater. Miner., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 51-61, Dec. 2021.



Original Research Articles