A review of rice husk silica as a heterogeneous catalyst support

Authors

  • Izzati Nasir University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli,17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Nadiah Ameram University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli,17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Arlina ALI University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli,17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Siti Roshayu HASSAN University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli,17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Nurul Akmar Che ZAUDIN University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Jeli,17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Jamil MOHAMED SAPARI School of Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Negeri Sembilan Branch, Kuala Pilah Campus, 72000 Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Keywords:

Rice husk, Rice husk ash, Amorphous silica, Modified silica catalyst

Abstract

The yield of amorphous silica has less residue of mineral content in rice husk (RH) and a high specific surface area through the simple alkaline extraction process at first, then acid precipitation of RH. At this time, the leaching process using alkali and calcination of RH is the best method to acquire amorphous silica with a high surface area. The different temperatures were used for the calcination of RH and continue with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment by using different concentration. The sample titrated using hydrochloric acid (HCl) to extract silica. Pretreatment with acid leaching for the RH was also conducted before the calcination of the RH. Results acquired were analysed and compared.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

S. R. Kamath, and A. Proctor, “Silica gel from rice hull ash: Preparation and characterization,” Cereal Chemistry, vol. 75, pp. 484-487, 1998.

A. Chakraverty, and S. Kaleemullah, “Conversion of rice husk into amorphous silica and combustible gas,” Energy conversion and management, vol. 32, pp. 565-570, 1991.

T. Hisatomi, M. Otani, K. Nakajima, K. Teramura, Y. Kako, D. Lu, T. Takata, J. N. Kondo, and K. Domen, “Preparation of crystallised mesoporous Ta3N5 assisted by chemical vapor deposition of tetramethyl orthosilicate,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22, pp. 3854-3861, 2010.

S. Chandrasekhar, P. N. Pramada, and L. Praveen, “Effect of organic acid treatment on the properties of rice husk silica,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, pp. 6535-6544, 2005.

V. P. Della, I. Kühn, and D. Hotza, “Rice husk ash as an alternate source for active silica production,” Materials letters, vol. 57, pp. 818-821, 2002.

U. Kalapathy, A. Proctor, and J. Shultz, “A simple method for production of pure silica from rice hull ash,” Bioresource technology, vol. 73, pp. 257-262, 2000.

M. T. Tsay, and F.W. Chang, “Characterisation and reactivity of RHA–Al2O3 composite oxides supported nickel catalysts,”

Catalysis Communications, vol. 2, pp. 233-239, 2001.

W. S. Chen, F. W. Chang, L. S. Roselin, T. C. Ou, and S. C. Lai, “Partial oxidation of methanol over copper catalysts supported on rice husk ash,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical,

vol. 318, pp. 36-43, 2010.

F. W. Chang, H. C. Yang, L. S. Roselin, and W.Y. Kuo, “Ethanol dehydrogenation over copper catalysts on rice husk ash prepared by ion exchange,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 304, pp. 30-39, 2006.

N. Grisdanurak, S. Chiarakorn, and J. Wittayakun, “Utilisation of mesoporous molecular sieves synthesised from natural source rice husk silica to chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) adsorption,” Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 20, pp. 950-955, 2003.

F. W. Chang, W. Y. Kuo, and K. C. Lee, “Dehydrogenation of ethanol over copper catalysts on rice husk ash prepared by incipient wetness impregnation,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 246, pp. 253-264, 2003.

X. Jiang, X. Tang, L. Tang, B. Zhang, and H. Mao, “Synthesis and formation mechanism of amorphous silica particles via sol-gel process with tetraethylorthosilicate,” Ceramics International,

vol. 45, pp. 7673-7680, 2019.

S. Mitra, “Preparation and characterisation of Cu-Cr impregnated silica catalyst from rice husk”, (Doctoral dissertation), 2014.

F. Adam, T. S. Chew, and J. Andas, “A simple template-free sol-gel synthesis of spherical nanosilica from agricultural biomass,” Journal of sol-gel science and technology, vol. 59, pp. 580-583, 2011.

F. Adam, P. Retnam, and A. Iqbal, “The complete conversion of cyclohexane into cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone by a simple

silica-chromium heterogeneous catalyst,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 357, pp. 93-99, 2009.

Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Itsuki, T. Shishido, and K. Takehira, “Manganese-containing MCM-41 for epoxidation of styrene and stilbene,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical,

vol. 188, pp. 189-200, 2002.

N. K. Sharma, W. S. Williams, and A. Zangvil, “Formation and structure of silicon carbide whiskers from rice hulls,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 67, pp. 715-720, 1984.

W. Yao, Y. Chen, L. Min, H. Fang, Z. Yan, H. Wang, and J, Wang, “Liquid oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol over cerium-doped MCM-41,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, vol. 246, pp. 162-166, 2006.

C. N. Satterfield, “Heterogeneous catalysis in industrial practice”, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991.

F. W. Chang, W. Y. Kuo, and H. C. Yang, “Preparation of Cr2O3-promoted copper catalysts on rice husk ash by incipient wetness impregnation,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 288, pp. 53-61, 2005.

F. Adam, and R. Thankappan, “Oxidation of benzene over bimetallic Cu–Ce incorporated rice husk silica catalysts,” Chemical

Engineering Journal, vol. 160, pp. 249-258, 2010.

F. Adam, and J. H. Chua, “The adsorption of palmytic acid on rice husk ash chemically modified with Al (III) ion using the sol–gel technique,” Journal of colloid and interface science,

vol. 280, pp. 55-61, 2004.

A. D. A. M. Farook, C. H. E. W. Thiam-Seng, and J. Andas, “Liquid phase oxidation of acetophenone over rice husk silica vanadium catalyst,” Chinese Journal of Catalysis, vol. 33, pp. 518-522, 2012.

A. Karera, S. Nargis, and M. Patel, “Silicon-based materials from rice husk,” Journal of scientific and industrial research, vol. 45, pp. 441-448, 1986.

H. A. Alyosef, A. Eilert, J. Welscher, S. S. Ibrahim, R. Denecke, W. Schwieger, and D. Enke, “Characterisation of biogenic silica generated by thermo chemical treatment of rice husk,” Particulate Science and Technology, vol. 22, pp. 524-532, 2013.

R. V. Krishnarao, and M. M. Godkhindi, “Effect of Si3N4 additions on the formation of SiC whiskers from rice husks,”

Ceramics international, vol. 18, pp. 185-191, 1992.

M. K. Naskar, and M. Chatterjee, “A novel process for the synthesis of cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18) powders from rice husk ash and other sources of silica and their comparative study,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 24, pp. 3499-3508, 2004.

R. Conradt, P. Pimkhaokham, and U. Leela-Adisorn, “Nano-structured silica from rice husk,” Journal of non-crystalline solids, vol. 145, pp. 75-79, 1992.

H. P. Wang, K. S. Lin, Y. J. Huang, M. C. Li, and L. K. Tsaur, “Synthesis of zeolite ZSM-48 from rice husk ash,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 58, pp. 147-152, 1998.

M. Wu, Q. Zha, J. Qiu, Y. Guo, H. Shang, and A. Yuan, “Preparation and characterisation of porous carbons from PAN-based preoxidised cloth by KOH activation,” Carbon, vol. 42, pp. 205-210, 2004.

L. Sun, and K. Gong, “Silicon-based materials from rice husks and their applications,” Industrial & engineering chemistry research, vol. 40, pp. 5861-5877, 2001.

R. Pode “Potential applications of rice husk ash waste from rice husk biomass power plant,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 53, pp. 1468-1485, 2016.

R. M. Mohamed, I. A. Mkhalid, and M. A. Barakat, “Rice husk ash as a renewable source for the production of zeolite NaY and its characterization,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, pp. 48-53, 2015.

A. E. Ahmed, and F. Adam, “Indium incorporated silica from rice husk and its catalytic activity,” Microporous and mesoporous materials, vol. 103, pp. 284-295, 2007.

S. A. T. H. Y. Chandrasekhar, K. G. Satyanarayana, P. N. Pramada, P. Raghavan, and T. N. Gupta, “Review processing, properties and applications of reactive silica from rice husk—An overview,” Journal of materials science, vol. 38, pp. 3159-3168, 2003.

R. V. Krishnarao, J. Subrahmanyam, and T. J. Kumar, “Studies on the formation of black particles in rice husk silica ash,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 21, pp. 99-104, 2001.

K. Amutha, R. Ravibaskar, and G. Sivakumar, “Extraction, synthesis and characterisation of nanosilica from rice husk ash,” International Journal of Nanotechnology and applications, vol. 4, pp. 61-66, 2010.

V. B. Carmona, R. M. Oliveira, W. T. L. Silva, L. H. C. Mattoso, and J. M. Marconcini, “Nanosilica from rice husk: Extraction and characterization,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 43, pp. 291-296, 2013.

N. Yalcin, and V. Sevinc, “Studies on silica obtained from rice husk,” Ceramics international, vol. 27, pp. 219-224, 2001.

F. Ghorbani, A. M. Sanati, and M. Maleki, “Production of silica nanoparticles from rice husk as agricultural waste by environmental friendly technique,” Environmental Studies of Persian Gulf, vol. 2, pp. 56-65, 2015.

T. H. Liou, “Preparation and characterisation of nano-structured silica from rice husk,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 364, pp. 313-323, 2004.

A. A. Alshatwi, J. Athinarayanan, and V. S. Periasamy, “Bio-compatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical application,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 47, pp. 8-16, 2015.

R. Prasad, and M. Pandey, “Rice husk ash as a renewable source for the production of value added silica gel and its application: an overview,” Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, vol. 7, pp. 1-25, 2012.

M. Salavati-Niasari, J. Javidi, and M. Dadkhah, “Ball milling synthesis of silica nanoparticle from rice husk ash for drug delivery application,” Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening, vol. 16, pp. 458-462, 2013.

G. R. de Sensale, “Strength development of concrete with rice-husk ash”, Cement and concrete composites, vol. 28, pp. 158-160, 2006.

F. Z. Sobrosa, N. P. Stochero, E.,Marangon, and M. D. Tier, “Development of refractory ceramics from residual silica derived from rice husk ash”, Ceramics International, vol. 43, pp. 7142-7146, 2017.

Koushkbaghi, M., Kazemi, M. J., Mosavi, H., & Mohseni, E., “Acid resistance and durability properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete incorporating rice husk ash and recycled aggregate”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 202, pp. 266-275, 2019.

S. Sankar, S. K. Sharma, N. Kaur, B. Lee, D. Y. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Jung, “Biogenerated silica nanoparticles synthesised from sticky, red, and brown rice husk ashes by a chemical method”, Ceramics International, vol. 42, pp. 4875-4885, 2016.

R. A. Bakar, R. Yahya, and S. N. Gan, “Production of high purity amorphous silica from rice husk,” Procedia Chemistry, vol. 19, pp.189-195, 2016.

T. H. Liou, and C. C. Yang, “Synthesis and surface characteristics of nanosilica produced from alkali-extracted rice husk ash,” Materials science and engineering: B, vol. 176, pp.521-529, 2011.

O. Olawale, and F. A. Oyawale, “Characterisation of rice husk via atomic absorption spectrophotometer for optimal silica production,” International Journal of science and Technology,

vol. 2, pp.210-213, 2012.

W. Xu, J. Wei, J. Chen, B. Zhang, P. Xu, J. Ren, and Q. Yu, “Comparative study of water-leaching and acid-leaching pretreatment on the thermal stability and reactivity of biomass silica for viability as a pozzolanic additive in cement,” Materials,

vol. 11, pp.1697, 2018.

R. Prasad, and M. Pandey, “Rice husk ash as a renewable source for the production of value added silica gel and its application: An overview,” Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, vol. 7, pp.1-25, 2012.

I. Lukić, J. Krstić, D. Jovanović, and D. Skala, “Alumina/ silica supported K2CO3 as a catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from sunflower oil,” Bioresource technology, vol. 100, pp. 4690-4696, 2009.

T. Martin, A. Galarneau, F. Di Renzo, D. Brunel, F. Fajula, S. Heinisch, and J. L. Rocca, “Great improvement of chromate-graphic performance using MCM-41 spheres as stationary phase in HPLC,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 16, pp. 1725-1731, 2004.

N. S. C. Zulkifli, I. Ab Rahman, D. Mohamad, and A. Husein, “A green sol–gel route for the synthesis of structurally controlled silica particles from rice husk for dental composite filler,” Ceramics international, vol. 39, pp. 4559-4567, 2013.

B. Singh, “Rice husk ash”, In Waste and Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete,” Woodhead Publishing, pp. 417-460, 2018.

F. Adam, S. Balakrishnan, and P. L. Wong, “Rice husk ash silica as a support material for ruthenium based heterogenous catalyst,” Journal of Physical Science, vol. 17, pp. 1-13, 2006.

C. H. Lee, H. Jung, D. H. Jo, S. Jeon, and S. H. Kim, "Effect of surfactant on CO2 adsorption of APS-grafted silica gel by one-pot process," Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, vol.89, pp. 823-832, 2016.

X. Ma, B. Zhou, W. Gao, Y. Qu, L. Wang, Z. Wang, and Y. Zhu, "A recyclable method for production of pure silica from rice hull ash," Powder technology, vol. 217, pp. 497-501, 2012.

G. Jiang, X. Shen, and T. Wang, “An efficient strategy for preparation of super-hydrophobic silane fluorinated polystyrene films with monomethoxypolyethyleneglycol-graft polyethoxy-disiloxane gel,” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 2, pp.1261-1263, 2011.

P. Chen, W. Gu, W. Fang, X. Ji, and R. Bie, "Removal of metal impurities in rice husk and characterization of rice husk ash under simplified acid pretreatment process." Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, vol. 36, pp. 830-837, 2017

T. Keskin, H. N. Abubackar, K. Arslan, and N. Azbar, "Bio-hydrogen production from solid wastes." In Biohydrogen, Elsevier, pp. 321-346, 2019.

S. Esposito, “Traditional sol-gel chemistry as a powerful tool for the preparation of supported metal and metal oxide catalysts,” Materials, vol.12, p. 668, 2019.

S. G. Ullattil, and P. Periyat, “Sol-gel synthesis of titanium dioxide,” In Sol-Gel Materials for Energy, Environment and Electronic Applications, pp. 271-283, 2017.

E. Yılmaz, E. Sert, and F. S. Atalay, “Synthesis and sulfation of titanium based metal organic framework; MIL-125 and usage as catalyst in esterification reactions,” Catalysis Communications,

vol. 100, pp. 48-51, 2017.

C. Xu, Q. Li, J. Shen, Z. Yuan, J. Ning, Y. Zhong, Z. Zhang, and Y. Hu, "A facile sequential ion exchange strategy to synthesize CoSe2/FeSe2 double-shelled hollow nanocuboids for the highly active and stable oxygen evolution reaction." Nanoscale, vol. 11, pp. 10738-10745, 2019.

J. Xin, H. Cui, Z. Cheng, and Z. Zhou, "Bimetallic Ni-Co/ SBA-15 catalysts prepared by urea co-precipitation for dry reforming of methane." Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 554, pp. 95-104, 2018.

P. Kaewpengkrow, D. Atong, and Sricharoenchaikul, V. "Selective catalytic fast pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas residue with metal oxide impregnated activated carbon for upgrading bio-oil."

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, pp. 18397-18409, 2017.

L. Di, J. Zhang, and X. Zhang, "A review on the recent progress, challenges, and perspectives of atmospheric‐pressure cold plasma for preparation of supported metal catalysts." Plasma Processes and Polymers, vol. 15, p. 1700234, 2018.

R. Rithuparna, V. Jittin, and A. Bahurudeen, "Influence of different processing methods on the recycling potential of agro-waste ashes for sustainable cement production: A review." Journal of Cleaner Production, p. 128242, 2021.

Downloads

Published

2021-12-16

How to Cite

[1]
I. . Nasir, N. Ameram, A. . ALI, S. R. . HASSAN, N. A. C. . ZAUDIN, and J. MOHAMED SAPARI, “A review of rice husk silica as a heterogeneous catalyst support ”, J. Met. Mater. Miner., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1-12, Dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Review Articles