Thermal and mechanical properties of an epoxidized natural rubber composite containing a Li/Cr Co-doped NiO-based filler
Keywords:Nickel oxide, Rubber composites, Thermal properties, Mechanical properties
AbstractLi and Cr co-doped NiO-based (LCNO) filler was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel process using metal nitrate compounds as starting materials and citric acid as a crosslinking agent, followed calcination at a temperature of 1000ËšC for 3 h. Composites of Li and Cr co-doped NiO/epoxidized natural rubbers with 25 mol% epoxidation (abbreviated as LCNO/ENR-25) were prepared by mixing using a two-roll mill. The ENR-25 was blended with 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 phr (parts per hundred of rubber) of LCNO and the specimens were shaped at 160ËšC using compression molding. The LCNO/ENR-25 composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, a tensile tester was used to measure tensile strength, elongation at break and the modulus at 100% strain of the composites. The thermogravimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the decomposition temperature of the rubber composites with the addition of LCNO. The best dispersion of LCNO filled ENR-25 was observed with an LCNO loading of 3 phr. The incorporation of LCNO into ENR-25 resulted in an increase in the tensile strength and elongation at break, but decreased the modulus at 100% strain. The LCNO/ENR-25 composite with a content of 3 phr had the highest elongation at break (711%) and the highest tensile strength (18 MPa) compared to that of the ENR-25 vulcanizates (673% and 17 MPa, respectively), probably due to the better dispersion of LCNO in ENR-25.
S. Salaeh, N. Muensit, P. Bomlai, and C. Nakason, “Ceramic/natural rubber composites: influence types of rubber and ceramic materials on curing, mechanical, morphological, and dielectric properties,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46, pp. 1723-1731, 2011.
A. A. Al-Ghamdi, O. A. Al-Hartomy, F. R. Al-Solamy, N. Dihovsky, M. Mihaylov, P. Malinova, and N. Atanasov, “Natural rubber based composites comprising different types of carbon-silica hybrid fillers. Comparative study on their electric, dielectric and microwave properties, and possible applications,” Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 7, pp. 295-306, 2016.
R. E. Newnham, D. P. Skinner, and L. E. Cross, “Connectivity and piezoelectricpyroelectric composites,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 13, pp. 525-536, 1978.
B. Hilczer, J. Kulek, E. Markiewicz, M. Kosec, and B. Malič, “Dielectric relaxation in ferroelectric PZT-PVDF nanocomposites,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 305, pp. 167-173, 2002.
J. Li, J. Claude, L. E. Norena-Franco, S. I. Seok, and Q. Wang, “Electrical energy storage in ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites containing surface-functionalized BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20, pp. 6304-6306, 2008.
N. González, M. A. Custal, S. Lalaouna, J.- R. Riba, and E. Armelin, “Improvement of dielectric properties of natural rubber by adding perovskite nanoparticles,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 75, pp. 210-222, 2016.
N. González, M. A. Custal, G. N. Tomara, G. C. Psarras, J.-R. Riba, and E. Armelin, “Dielectric response of vulcanized natural rubber containing BaTiO3 filler: The role of particle functionalization,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 97, pp. 57-67, 2017.
W. Supmak, A. Petchsuk, and A. Thanaboonsombut, “Influence of ceramic particle sizes on electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/nylon57 composites,” Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, vol. 18, pp. 147-151, 2008.
S. Utara, P. Jantachum, and B. Sukkaneewat, “Effect of surface modification of silicon carbide nanoparticles on the properties of nanocomposites based on epoxidized natural rubber/natural rubber blends,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 134, pp. 45289, 2017.
Y. Shen, G. Liang, L. Yuan, Z. Qiang, and A. Gu, “Unique Li0.3Ti0.02Ni0.68O-carbon nanotube hybrids: Synthesis and their epoxy resin composites with remarkably higher dielectric constant and lower dielectric loss,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 602, pp. 16-25, 2014.
B. Khumpaitool, and S. Utara, “Preparation and characterization of Li0.30Cr0.10Ni0.60O/ polyvinylidene fluoride composites with high dielectric constants,” Ceramics International, vol. 43, pp. S274-S279, 2017.
S. Shokeen, “A review on rubber compound mixing in Banbury mixer at time industries,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology, vol. 2, pp. 232-236, 2015.
J. Khemprasit, and B. Khumpaitool, “Influence of Cr doping on structure and dielectric properties of LixCryNi1-x-yO ceramics,” Ceramics International, vol. 41, pp. 663-669, 2015.
N. Rattanasom, T. Saowapark, and C. Deeprasertkul, “Reinforcement of natural rubber with silica/carbon black hybrid filler,” Polymer Testing, vol. 26, pp. 369-377, 2007.
C. He, Y. Wang, Y. Luo, L. Kong, and Z. Peng, “Thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of epoxidized natural rubber,” Journal of Polymer Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 331-335, 2013.
A. Krainoi, C. Kummerlöwe, Y. Nakaramontri, N. Vennemann, S. Pichaiyut, S. Wisunthorn, and C. Nakason, “Influence of critical carbon nanotube loading on mechanical and electrical properties of epoxidized natural rubber nanocomposites,” Polymer Testing, vol. 66, pp. 122-136, 2018.
W. A. K. Mahmood, M. M. Rahman Khan, and M. H. Azarian, “Sol-gel synthesis and morphology, thermal and optical properties of epoxidized natural rubber/zirconia hybrid films,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 378, pp. 152-157, 2013.
S. Prasertsri, and N. Rattanasom, “Mechanical and damping properties of silica/natural rubber composites prepared from latex system,” Polymer Testing, vol. 30, pp. 515-526, 2011.
P. Boochathum, and N. Rongtongaram, “Influence of chloroacetate group on physical properties of natural rubber and its interaction with fillers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 133, pp. 43076, 2016.
S. F. Mendes, C. M. Costa, C. Caparros, V. Sencadas, and S. Lanceros-Me´ndez, “Effect of filler size and concentration on the structure and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/BaTiO3 nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 47, pp. 1378-1388, 2012.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.