The use of reclaimed rubber from waste tires for production of dynamically cured natural rubber/reclaimed rubber/polypropylene blends: Effect of reclaimed rubber loading
Keywords:Reclaimed rubber, Waste tires, Thermoplastic vulcanizates, Natural rubber, Polypropylene
AbstractReclaimed rubber (RR) from waste tires was introduced into thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) based on blends of natural rubber (NR)/RR/polypropylene (PP). The curing characteristics of NR/RR compounds together with properties of TPVs, i.e., mixing and dynamic vulcanization behaviors and mechanical, dynamic and morphological properties, were investigated with respect to RR content. The results show that the RR affects static and dynamic vulcanization of rubber molecules by increasing cure rate but lowers curing efficiency. Increasing the RR content in NR/RR/PP TPVs slightly reduces tensile strength but with a sharp impact on elongation at break. Dynamic properties reveal that elastomeric response of NR/RR/PP TPVs is inferior relative to that of NR/PP TPV. However, the complex viscosity indicates improved processability of the TPVs. SEM micrographs confirm dispersed phase morphology with vulcanized NR and RR particles embedded in the PP matrix, and the particle size increases with RR content.
L. Imbernon and S. Norvez, “From landfilling to vitrimer chemistry in rubber life cycle,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 82, pp. 347– 376, 2016.
A. I. Isayev, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd, 2003.
B. Adhikari, D. De, and S. Maiti, “Reclamation and recycling of waste rubber,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 25, pp. 909- 948, 2000.
L. Asaroa, M. Grattona, S. Segharb, and N.A. Hocinea, “Recycling of rubber wastes by devulcanization,” Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 133, pp. 250-262, 2018.
B. D. Lagrone, “Reclaiming of elastomers,” Conservation & Recycling, vol. 9, pp. 359- 361, 1986.
G. Jiang, S. Zhao, W. Li, J. Luo, Y. Wang, Q. Zhou, and C. Zhang, “Microbial desulfurization of SBR ground rubber by Sphingomonas sp. and its utilization as filler in NR compounds,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 22, pp. 2344-2351, 2011.
G. Jiang, S. Zhao, J. Luo, Y. Wang, W. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Microbial desulfurization for NR ground rubber by thiobacillus ferrooxidans,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, pp. 2768-2774, 2010.
M. M. Hassan, N. A. Badway, M. Y. Elnaggar, and E. A. Hegazy, “Thermo-mechanical properties of devulcanized rubber/high crystalline poly-propylene blends modified by ionizing radiation,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 19, pp. 1241- 1250, 2013.
M. M. Hassan, N. A. Badway, M. Y. Elnaggar, and E. A. Hegazy, “Synergistic effect of gamma radiation and peroxide on dynamic vulcanization of thermoplastic vulcanizes based on (de-vulcanized rubber)/polypropylene,” Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, vol. 20, pp. 168-176, 2014.
I. Mangili, M. Lasagni, K. Huang, and A. I. Isayev, “Modeling and optimization of ultrasonic devulcanization using the response surface methodology based on central composite face-centered design,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 144, pp. 1-10, 2015.
R. Diaz, G. Colomines, E. Peuvrel-Disdier, and R. Deterre, “Thermo-mechanical recycling of rubber: Relationship between material properties and specific mechanical energy,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 252, pp. 454-468. 2018.
S. Saiwari, J. W. van Hoek, W. K. Dierkes, L. E. A. M. Reuvekamp, G. Heideman, A. Blume, and J. W. M. Noordermeer, “Upscaling of a batch de-vulcanization process for ground car tire rubber to a continuous process in a twin screw extruder,” Materials, vol. 9, Article number: 724, 2016.
F. Cavalieri, F. Padella, and F. Cataldo, “Mechanochemical surface activation of ground tire rubber by solid-state devulcanization and grafting,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 90, pp. 1631-1638, 2003.
V. V. Rajan, W. K. Dierkes, J. W. M. Noordermeer, and R. Joseph, “Comparative investigation on the reclamation of NR based latex products with amines and disulfides,” Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 78, pp. 855-867, 2005.
S. O. Movahed, A. Ansarifar, S. K. Nezhad, and S. Atharyfar, “A novel industrial technique for recycling ethylene-propylenediene waste rubber,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 111, pp. 114-123, 2015.
S. Ghorai, S. Bhunia, M. Roy, and D. Dea, “Influence of ground tire rubber devulcanization conditions on properties of its thermoplastic vulcanizate blends with copolyester,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 129, pp. 34- 46, 2016.
B. Sripornsawat, S. Saiwari, S. Pichaiyut, and C. Nakason, “Mechanochemical devulcanization of natural rubber vulcanizate by dual function disulfide chemicals,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 85, pp. 279- 297, 2016.
N. Y. Ning, S. Q. Li, H. G. Wu, H. C. Tian, P. J. Yao, G. H. Hu, M. Tian, and L. Q. Zhang, “Preparation, microstructure, and microstructure-properties relationship of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs): A review,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 79, pp. 61-97, 2018.
J. Karger-Kocsis, “Thermoplastic Rubbers via Dynamic Vulcanisation.” in Polymer Blends and Alloys, eds G.O. Shonaike and G.P. Simon, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1999, pp. 125-153.
R. R. Babu and K. Naskar, “Recent developments on thermoplastic elastomers by dynamic vulcanization,” Advanced Rubber Composites, vol. 239, pp. 219-247, 2011.
N. Lopattananon, A. Walong, and T. Sakai, “Influence of incorporation methods of ATH on microstructure, elastomeric properties, flammability, and thermal decomposition of dynamically vulcanized NR/PP blends,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 135, Article number: 46231, 2018.
K. C. Yong, “Preparation and characterisation of electrically conductive thermoplastic vulcanisate based on natural rubber and polypropylene blends with polyaniline,” Polymers and polymer composites, vol. 24, pp. 225-232, 2016.
A. Thitithammawong, N. Uthaipan, and A. Rungvichaniwat, “The influence of mixed conventional sulfur/peroxide vulcanization systems on the mechanical and thermal properties of natural rubber/polypropylene blends,” Journal of Elastomers and Plastics, vol. 44, pp. 419-432, 2012.
A. Thitithammawong, C. Nakason, K. Sahakaro, and J.W.M. Noordermeer, “Effect of different types of peroxides on rheological, mechanical, and morphological properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates based on natural rubber/ polypropylene blends,” Polymer Testing, vol. 26, pp. 537-546, 2007.
A. K. Naskar, A. K. Bhowmick, and S. K. De, “Thermoplastic elastomeric composition based on ground rubber tire,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 41, pp. 1087- 1098, 2001.
X. Colom, F. Carrillo, and J. Canavate, “Composites reinforced with reused tyres: surface oxidant treatment to improve the interfacial compatibility,” Composites Part A, vol. 38, pp. 44-50, 2007.
G. M. Trofimova, L. V. Kompaniets, D. D. Novikov, and E. V. Prut, “Mechanical properties of blends based on isotactic polypropylene and crumb rubber,” Polymer Science Series B, vol. 47, pp. 159-162, 2005.
X. J. Ding, R. W. Xu, D. S. Yu, H. Chen, and R. Fan, “Effect of ultrafine, fully vulcanized acrylate powdered rubber on the mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of nylon 6,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 90, pp. 3503-3511, 2003.
I. Fuhrmann and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Use of surface grafted ground tyre rubber (GRT) in PA-6, PBT and PUR,” Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, vol. 56, pp. 42-48, 2003.
I. Fuhrmann and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Effects of ground tyre rubber (GRT) on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic blends,” Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, vol. 52, pp. 836-841, 1999.
D. H. A. I. Hassim, M. M. Kamal, R. Abd Rahim, and C. S. M. Saad, Use of reclaimed nitrile rubber gloves as partial replacement of virgin nitrile butadiene rubber in thermoplastic vulcanisates,” Journal of Rubber Research, vol. 14, pp.78-88, 2011.
C. Sangwichien, P. Sumanatrakool, and O. Patarapaiboolchai, “Effect of filler loading on curing characteristics and mechanical properties of thermoplastic vulcanizate,” Chiang Mai Journal of Science, vol. 35, pp. 141-149, 2008.
C. Radheshkumar and J. Karger-Kocsis, “Thermoplastic dynamic vulcanisates containing LDPE, rubber, and thermochemically reclaimed ground tyre rubber,” Plastics Rubber and Composites, vol. 31, pp. 99-105, 2002.
X. Lu, W. Wang, and L. Yu, “Waste ground rubber tire powder/thermoplastic vulcanizate blends: preparation, characterization, and compatibility,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 131, Article number: 39868, 2014.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.