Using shrimp shells as based catalysts for FAME production from palm oil feedstock
Keywords:Shrimp shells, Basic strength
In this study, waste shrimp shells from industry were used as a heterogeneous bio-based catalyst for trans-esterification reaction of fresh palm oil. CaO was prepared from shrimp shells calcination. Surface area, phase composition, and basicity of the calcined shrimp shell catalysts were studied using N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and CO2 temperature-programmed-desorption (CO2-TPD), respectively. The influence of shrimp shells calcination temperature and operation condition, methanol to palm oil ratio on trans-esterification reaction, were investigated. Five hours trans-esterification was carried out at 65℃ using different shrimp shell at four different calcination temperature: 700, 750, 800 and 850℃ with 9:1 methanol to palm oil ratio to determine the suitable calcined catalyst with the highest FAME yield. Methanol to palm oil ratios were varied from 6:1, 9:1, 12:1 and 15:1 with the selected catalyst. According to the results, the highest basic strength of mixed CaO and hydroxy-apatite phases were received by 800℃ calcined shrimp shell catalyst, with the highest FAME yield of 87.54% under the optimum condition reaction: 65℃ reaction temperature, 5 h reaction time, 9 wt% catalyst loading, and 9:1 methanol to palm oil ratio.
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