Protocols of improvements for PMMA denture base resin: An overview
Keywords:Autoclave, Crosslinking agent, Gamma irradiation, Post-polymerization, Ultrasonic treatment
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a polymer that is expansively employed in denture base construction due to its low cost, aesthetics, lightweight, reparability, and processability. Nevertheless, this material is not ideal to fulfill the mechanical and physical characteristics of dental restorations. Despite the popularity of the thermal polymerization method, the main shortcoming is the prolonged curing period. Thus, correctly selecting a polymerization cycle and post-polymerization treatment is needed to achieve promising outcomes. In autoclave polymerization, pressure plays a crucial function in accelerating the initial polymerization as well as decreasing the pores and remaining monomer level, thereby improving the flexural strength. Besides, ultrasound can speed up conventional chemical reactions by generating intensive local heating, higher pressures, and very short periods. This article reviews the currently employed protocols for enhancing PMMA denture base polymers and discusses the properties of modified acrylic materials. Moreover, this work explores the effects of the post-polymerization treatment, autoclave process, ultrasonic treatment, and gamma irradiation on the PMMA performance, as well as the positive influence of these treatments on functional properties and clinical longevity.
V. K. Chintalacheruvu, R. U. Balraj, L. S. Putchala, and S. Pachalla, "Evaluation of three different processing techniques in the fabrication of complete dentures," Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. S18-S23, 2017.
N. W. Elshereksi, M. J. Ghazali, A. Muchtar, and C. H. Azhari, "Perspectives for titanium-derived fillers usage on denture base composite construction: A review article," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2014, pp. 1-13, 2014.
M. S. Zafar, "Prosthodontic applications of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA): An update," Polymers (Basel), vol. 12, no. 10, pp., 2020.
S. Muhammad Firdaus, T. J. Sheng, Z. Ariffin, and M. Mariatti, "Properties improvement of acrylic resin for denture application: Effect of single and hybrid types of fillers with different weight loadings," Plastics, Rubber and Composites, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 329-339, 2021.
A. M. Joseph, S. Joseph, N. Mathew, A. T. Koshy, N. L. Jayalakshmi, and V. Mathew, "Effect of incorporation of nanoclay on the properties of heat cure denture base material: An in vitro study," Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 658-663, 2019.
N. Polychronakis, P. Lagouvardos, G. Polyzois, N. Sykaras, and P. Zoidis. "Color changes of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyoxymethelene (POM) denture resins on single and combined staining/cleansing action by CIELab and CIEDE2000 formulas," Journal of Prosthodontic Research, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 159-166, 2019.
G. K. Spartalis, L. K. Cappelletti, A. C. Schoeffel, M. D. Michel, T. A. Pegoraro, C.A. Galvao Arrais, K. Neppelenbroek, and V. Urban, "Effect of conventional water-bath and experimental microwave polymerization cycles on the flexural properties of denture base acrylic resins," Dental Materials Journal, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 623-628, 2015.
M. I. Ebrahim, A. N. Syam, and S. Gamal, "Effect of zirconium oxide nano-fillers addition on transverse strength and impact strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin, an in vitro study," Advanced Dental Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 31-36, 2019.
N. W. Elshereksi, A. Muchtar, and C. H. Azhari, "Effects of nanobarium titanate on physical and mechanical properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) denture base nanocomposites," Polymers and Polymer Composites, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 484-496, 2021.
E. A. Ayaz, and R. Durkan. "Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties," International Journal of Oral Science, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 229-235, 2013.
Y. Hayran, and Y. Keskin. "Flexural strength of polymethyl methacrylate copolymers as a denture base resin," Dental Materials Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 678-686, 2019.
P. Spasojevic, M. Zrilic, V. Panic, D. Stamenkovic, S. Seslija, and S. Velickovic, "The mechanical properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base material modified with dimethyl itaconate and di-n-butyl itaconate," International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2015, pp. 1-9, 2015.
R. L. X. Consania, A. B. Paulab, A. P. P. Fugolinc, and C. S. Pfeiferc, "Effect of the combination of a crosslinking agent and a thiourethane additive on the properties of acrylic denture bases processed with microwave energy," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 98, pp. 90-95, 2019.
M. A. Hussein, "Role of cross-linking process on the performance of PMMA," International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 279-284, 2017.
O. Sahin, A. K. Ozdemir, M. Turgut, A. Boztug, and Z. Sumer, "Investigation of flexural strength and cytotoxicity of acrylic resin copolymers by using different polymerization methods," Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 98-107, 2015.
N. F. Attia, S. E. A. Elashery, A. M. Zakria, A. S. Eltaweil, and H. Oh, "Recent advances in graphene sheets as new generation of flame retardant materials," Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 274, pp. 1-10, 2021.
K. Katueangngan, T. Tulyapitak, A. Saetung, S. Soontaranon, and N. Nithi-Uthai, "Improvement in the properties of silica-reinforced natural rubber with the sustainable interfacial modifier: effect of molecular weight and content of interfacial modifier," Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1-12, 2019.
Y. Li, and H. Guo, "Crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate) with perfluorocyclobutyl aryl ether moiety as crosslinking unit: thermally stable polymer with high glass transition temperature," RSC Advances, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1981-1988, 2020.
E. A. Ayaz, R. Durkan, A. Koroglu, and B. Bagis, "Comparative effect of different polymerization techniques on residual monomer and hardness properties of PMMA-based denture resins," Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Functional Materials, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 228-233, 2014.
D. B. Barbosa, R. F. Souza, A. C. Pero, J. Marre, and M. A. Compagnoni, "Flexural strength of acrylic resins polymerized by different cycles," Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 424-428, 2007.
M. A. Compagnoni, D. B. Barbosa, R. F. Souza, and A. C. Pero, "The effect of polymerization cycles on porosity of microwave-processed denture base resin," Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 91, pp. 281-285, 2004.
U. K. Kartika, B. Agrawal, N. S. Yadav, P. P. Singh, and T. Rahangdale. "The effect of microwave processing and use of antimicrobial agent on porosity of conventional heat cured denture base resin: An in vitro study," The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 257-262, 2015.
C. Lai, M.-H. Tsai, M. Chen, H.-S. Chang, and H.-H. Tay. "Morphology and properties of denture acrylic resins cured by microwave energy and conventional water bath," Dental Materials, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 133-141, 2004.
S. Singh, J. N. Palaskar, and S. Mittal. "Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy," Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 147-151, 2013.
A. Usanmaz, J. Ates, and A. Dogan. "Thermal and mechanical properties of microwave- and heat-cured ploy(methyl methacrylate) used as dental base material," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 90, pp. 251-256, 2003.
L. W. May, and L. G. Seong, "A narrative review of different types and processing methods of acrylic denture base material," Annals of Dentistry University of Malaya, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 58-67, 2018.
L. M. Moharam, S. A. Botros, F. S. El-Askary, and M. Özcan, "Effect of polymerization protocol on the degree of conversion of photo- and dual-polymerized self-etch adhesives," Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 262-274, 2015.
R. Alla, K., R. Swamy, R. Vyas, and A. Konakanchi, "Conventional and Contemporary polymers for the fabrication of denture prosthesis- Part I-Overview, composition and properties," International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 82-89, 2015.
S. A. Asal, and H. M. Al-AlShiekh, "Heat-cured acrylic resin versus light-activated resin: a patient, professional and technician-based evaluation of mandibular implant-supported overdentures," Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1596-1603, 2017.
S. K. Khindria, S. Mittal, and U. Sukhija, "Evolution of denture base materials," The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 64-69, 2009.
P. Pfeiffer, C. Rolleke, and L. Sherif. "Flexural strength and moduli of hypoallergenic denture base materials," Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 372-377, 2005.  F. X. A. Soesetijo, D. Prijatmoko, and L. Hidajati, "Biocompatibility of thermoplastic nylon flexible removable partial denture – A review," International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 75-83, 2016.
S. A. Muhsin, P. V. Hatton, A. Johnson, N. Sereno, and D. J. Wood, "Determination of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) mechanical properties as a denture material," Saudi Dental Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 382-391, 2019.
G. Skirbutis, A. Dzingutė, V. Masiliūnaitė, G. Šulcaitė, and J. Žilinskas, "A review of PEEK polymer’s properties and its use in prosthodontics," Stomatologija, vol. 19, pp. 19-23, 2017.
J. F. McCabe, and A. W. G. Walls, Applied Dental Materials. 9th ed. UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2013.
A. O. Alhareb, H. M. Akil, and Z. A. Ahmad, "Impact strength, fracture toughness and hardness improvement of PMMA denture base through addition of nitrile rubber/ceramic fillers," The Saudi Journal for Dental Research, vol. 8, no. 1-2, pp. 26-34, 2017.
M. Vojdani, R. Bagheri, and A. A. R. Khaledi, "Effects of aluminum oxide addition on the flexural strength, surface hardness, and roughness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin," Journal of Dental Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 238-244, 2012.
F. K. A. Al-Kadi, J. F. Abdulkareem, and C. A. Al-jmoor. "Fracture strength of palatal denture base constructed from different acrylic denture base materials," European Scientific Journal, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 346-354, 2015.
A. Ranganathan, S. Karthigeyan, R. Chellapillai, V. Rajendran, T. Balavadivel, and A. Velayudhan, "Effect of novel cycloaliphatic comonomer on the flexural and impact strength of heat-cure denture base resin," Journal of Oral Science, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 14-17, 2021.
T. R. Cunha, R. R. Regis, M. R. Bonatti, and R. F. de Souza. "Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkyl methacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin," Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 103-107, 2009.
S. Kurata, K. Morishita, K. Shimoyama, and K. Umemoto. "Basic study on the application of novel functional monomers to a denture base resin," Dental Materials Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 273-277, 2008.
A. Köroğlu, O. Sahin, D. Ö. Dede, Ş. Adıgüzel, and B. Hazer. "Evaluation of the mechanical properties and residual monomer content of copolymer acrylic resins polymerized by different methods," Selcuk Dental Journal, vol. 5, pp. 31-38, 2018.
F. Tuguta, M. Turguta, and D. Saraydin. "Influence of concentrations of methacrylate and acrylate monomers on the properties of fiber reinforced polymethyl methacrylate denture base materials," Acta Chemica IASI, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 329-350, 2018.
T. Kawaguchi, L. V. Lassila, P. K. Vallittu, and Y. Takahashi. "Mechanical properties of denture base resin cross-linked with methacrylated dendrimer," Dental Materials, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 755-761, 2011.
C. S. Pfeifer, Z. R. Shelton, R. R. Braga, D. Windmoller, J. C. Machado, J. W. Stansbury, "Characterization of dimethacrylate polymeric networks: a study of the crosslinked structure formed by monomers used in dental composites," Eur Polym J, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 162-170, 2011.
E. Asmussen, and A. Peutzfeldt. "Influence of selected components on crosslink density in polymer structures," European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 108, pp. 282-285, 2001.
I. M. Barszczewska-Rybarek. "A guide through the dental dimethacrylate polymer network structural characterization and interpretation of physico-mechanical properties," Materials (Basel), vol. 12, no. 24, pp. 1-30, 2019.
T. Kawaguchi, L. V. Lassila, H. Sasaki, Y. Takahashi, and P. K. Vallittu. "Effect of heat treatment of polymethyl methacrylate powder on mechanical properties of denture base resin," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 39, pp. 73-78, 2014.
E.-S. Keh, I. Hayakawa, H. Takahashi, A. Watanabe, Y. Iwasaki, K. Akiyoshi, and N. Nakabayashi, "Improving a self-curing dental resin by eliminating oxygen, hydroquinone and water from its curing process," Dental Materials Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 373-382, 2002.
M. N. Y. Nazhat, T. Y. Q. Basshi, and A. A. Taqa, "An autoclave effect on the powder of poly methylmethacrylate," International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 69-72, 2014.
S. Dall’oca, F. Papacchini, C. Goracci, A. H. Cury, B. I. Suh, F. R. Tay, A. Polimeni, and M. Ferrari, "Effect of oxygen inhibition on composite repair strength over time," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 81B, pp. 493-498, 2007.
Z. Zhao, X. Mu, J. Wu, H. J. Qi, and D. Fang. "Effects of oxygen on interfacial strength of incremental forming of materials by photopolymerization," Extreme Mechanics Letters, vol. 9, pp. 108-118, 2016.
S. C. Ligon, B. Husar, H. Wutzel, R. Holman, and R. Liska. "Strategies to reduce oxygen inhibition in photoinduced polymerization," Chemical Reviews, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 557-589, 2014.
J. H. Jorge, A. C. Pavarina, E. T. Giampaolo, and I. Z. Carlos. "Effect of post-polymerization heat treatments on the cytotoxicity of two denture base acrylic resins," Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 203-207, 2006.
M. Kostic, L. Nikolic, V. Nikolic, D. Petkovic, M. Igic, N. Krunic, M. Manic, N. Gligorijevic, and G. Radenkovic, "Effects of water boiling, microwave, and water bath post-polymerization on mechanical properties of acrylic denture resins," Hemijska industrija, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 129-137, 2018.
L. M. Meister, A. C. Kovalik, C. V. Pellissari, M. Bail, E. B. Campagnoli, J. H. Jorge, and N. H. Campanha, "Effect of Post-polymerization heat treatment on a denture base acrylic resin: Histopathological analysis in rats," International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Science, vol. S2, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2015.
V. M. Urban, A. L. Machado, C. E. Vergani, E. Jorge, L. P. S. Santos, E. Leite, and S. Canevarolo, "Degree of conversion and molecular weight of one denture base and three reline resins submitted to post-polymerization treatments," Materials Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 191-197, 2007.
C. Y. Lung, and B. W. Darvell. "Minimization of the inevitable residual monomer in denture base acrylic," Dental Materials, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1119-1128, 2005.
M. C. Arenas-Arrocena, L. Argueta-Figueroa, R. García-Contreras, O. Martínez-Arenas, B. Camacho-Flores, M. de. P. Rodriguez-Torres, J. de la. Fuente-Hernandez, and L. S. Acosta-Torres, "New trends for the processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) biomaterial for dental prosthodontics," In: Reddy B, Editor. Acrylic Polymers in Healthcare. Croatia: InTech, 2017, pp. 43-47.
T. Charasseangpaisarn, C. Wiwatwarrapan, and N. Leklerssiriwong. "Ultrasonic cleaning reduces the residual monomer in acrylic resins". Journal of Dental Sciences, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 443-448, 2016.
T. Charasseangpaisarn, and C. Wiwatwarrapan. "The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin," Ultrasonics, vol. 63, no. pp. 163-167, 2015.
S. S. Abdulwahhab. "High-impact strength acrylic denture base material processed by autoclave," Journal of Prosthodontic Research, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 288-293, 2013.
A. M. Al-Thobity. "The impact of polymerization technique and glass-fiber reinforcement on the flexural properties of denture base resin material," European Journal of Dentistry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 92-99, 2020.
M. M. Gad, A. Rahoma, and A. M. Al-Thobity. "Effect of polymerization technique and glass fiber addition on the surface roughness and hardness of PMMA denture base material," Dent Mater Journal, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 746-753, 2018.
A. Usanmaz, O. Eser, and A. Dogan. "Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of γ‐ray‐cured poly(methyl methacrylate) used as a dental‐base material," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1291-1296, 2001.
E. Ergun, Ü. Ergun, and B. Kalıpçılar. "A comparative study of heat-cured and gamma-cured fiber-reinforced denture-base acrylic resins: Residual monomer and flexural strength," Polymers and Polymer Composites, vol. 28, no. 8-9, pp. 530-540, 2019.
R. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, P. S. Prabhudesai, and S. V. Bhide. "Influence of the processing technique on the flexural fatigue strength of denture base resins: An in vitro investigation," Indian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 21, pp. 391-395, 2010.
A. A. Taqa, M. N. Y. Nazhat, and T. Y. Q. Basshi. "The effect of autoclave on the powder of (PMMA) on the water sorption, solubility and porosity," International Research Journal of Basic and Clinical Studies, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 87-91, 2014.
K. Liu, Radiation induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate. (MSc Thesis), USA: University of Missouri, 1965.
M. F. Zaki, Y. H. Elshaer, and D. H. Taha. "The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 139, pp. 90-96, 2017.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.