Soldering of copper using graphene-phosphoric acid gel

Authors

  • Gurudatt Puranik Device Lab, Department of Physics, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India
  • Asis Sarkar Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India
  • Nirankar Mishra Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India
  • Sangam Chandrasekhar Gurumurthy Nanomaterials and Polymer Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India
  • Shridhar Mundinamani Device Lab, Department of Physics, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India

Keywords:

Soldering flux, Carbon nanomaterials, Graphene

Abstract

Soldering is a physical process in which one metal melts and joins the other to form a strong bond, which further helps in electron conduction and increases the mechanical strength in any electronic circuits. The present work demonstrates the development of graphene-based flux comprising of 2 g of graphene and 2 ml of phosphoric acid for the residue-free, high stability, durable, and two-step soldering of copper wire on to the surface of the copper-based printed circuit board. The soldering flux can be applied to the copper, and wire can be soldered in ambient conditions using commercial soldering iron at a standard soldering temperature of 260℃. This flux helps the formation of strong and electrically conducting joints between the copper wire and copper-based printed circuit board. The joints are studied with scanning electron microscope images, and energy dispersive X-ray mapping successfully shows the formation of a joint between the copper wire and the copper and also shows the presence of graphene between the joint.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Gurudatt Puranik, Device Lab, Department of Physics, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, INDIA-572103

Asis Sarkar, Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India

Assistant Professor, Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, INDIA-572103

Nirankar Mishra, Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India

Professor, Department of Nanotechnology, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, INDIA-572103

Sangam Chandrasekhar Gurumurthy, Nanomaterials and Polymer Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India

Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India - 576104

Shridhar Mundinamani, Device Lab, Department of Physics, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, 572103, India

Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru, Karnataka, INDIA-572103

References

Q. Cao, H. Zhao, L. Xu, B. Lu, B. Wang, and Z. Song, “Effects of graphene nanosheets on the intermetallic compounds layer between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solders and Cu substrates,” IEEE Xplore, pp. 1-3, 2015, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7411725.

R. Mayappan, A. Saaleh, and J. Andas, “The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1877, pp. 050004 1-8, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4999878.

J. Pstrus, P. Ozga, T. Gancarz, and K. Berent, “Effect of graphene layers on phenomena occurring at interface of Sn-Zn-Cu solder and Cu substrate,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 46, pp. 5248 1-11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-017-5529-2.

R.W. Wu, L.C. Tsao, and R.S. Chen, “Effect of 0.5 wt% nano-TiO2 addition into low-AgSn0.3Ag0.7 Cu solder on the intermetallic growth with Cu substrate during isothermal aging,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26, pp. 1858-1865, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-014-2621-8.

I.M. Katsnelson, “Graphene: Carbon in two dimensions,” Materials Today, vol. 10, pp. 20-27, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(06)71788-6.

H. Chen, M.B. Müller, K.J. Gilmore, G.G. Wallace, and D. Li, “Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and biocompatible graphene paper,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, pp. 3557-3561, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200800757.

Y. Zhu, S. Murali, W. Cai, X. Li, J.W. Suk, J.R. Potts, and R.S. Ruoff, “Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications,” Advanced Materials, vol. 22, pp. 3906-3924, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201001068.

J.C. Meyer, A.K. Geim, M.I. Katsnelson, K.S. Novoselov, T.J. Booth, and S. Roth, “The structure of suspended graphene sheets,” Nature, vol. 446, pp. 60-63, 2007, https://doi:10.1038/nature05545.

T.J. Booth, P. Blake, R.R. Nair, D. Jiang, E.W. Hill, U. Bangert, and A.K. Geim, “Macroscopic graphene membranes and their extraordinary stiffness,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, pp. 2442-2446, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1021/nl801412y.

S.Y. Yang, K.H. Chang, Y.L. Huang, Y.F. Lee, H.W. Tien, S.M. Li, and C.C. Hu, “A powerful approach to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with high specific surface area,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 14, pp. 39-42, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2011.10.028.

I.S. Burmistrov, I.V. Gornyi, V.Y. Kachorovskii, M.I. Katsnelson, and A.D. Mirlin, “Quantum elasticity of graphene: Thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat,” Physical Review B, vol. 94, pp. 1-18, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.195430.

D.A.C. Brownson, and C.E Banks, “Graphene electrochemistry: An overview of potential applications,” The Analyst, vol. 135, pp. 2768-2778, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1039/C0AN00590H.

T. Kuila, S. Bose, A.K. Mishra, P. Khanra, N.H. Kim, and J.H. Lee, “Chemical functionalization of graphene and its applications,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 57, pp. 1061-1105, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2012.03.002.

D.C. Marcano, D.V. Kosynkin, J.M. Berlin, A. Sinitskii, Z. Sun, A. Slesarev, and J.M. Tour, “Improved synthesis of graphene oxide,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, pp. 4806-4814, 2008, https://doi.org/ 10.1021/nn1006368.

A.N. Obraztsov, “Making graphene on a large scale,” Nature Nano-technology, vol. 4, pp. 212-213, 2009, https://doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.67.

S. Stankovich, D.A. Dikin, R.D. Piner, K.A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, and R.S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon, vol. 45, pp. 1558-1565, 2007, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.carbon.2007.02.034.

C.Y. Su, A.Y. Lu, Y. Xu, F.R. Chen, A.N. Khlobystov, and L.J. Li, “High-quality thin graphene films from fast electrochemical exfoliation,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, pp. 2332-2339, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1021/nn200025p.

S. Mundinamani, “The choice of noble electrolyte for symmetric polyurethane-graphene composite supercapacitors,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, pp. 11240-11246, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.02.164.

W. Jang, Z. Chen, W. Bao, C.N. Lau, and C. Dames, “Thickness-dependent thermal conductivity of encased graphene and ultrathin graphite,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, pp. 3909-3913, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1021/nl101613u.

W. Gao, L.B. Alemany, L. Ci, and P.M. Ajayan, “New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide,” Nature Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 403-408, 2009, https://doi:10.1038/nchem.281.

T.J. Fatima, W.L. Jee, and G.J. Woo, “Facile and safe graphene preparation on solution based platform,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 2883-2887, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.11.022.

I.K. Moon, J. Lee, R.S. Ruoff, and H. Lee, “Reduced graphene oxide by chemical graphitization,” Nature Communications, vol. 1, pp. 1-6, 2010, https://doi:10.1038/ncomms1067.

B.W. Jiang, L.L. Miao, C. Xin, N.L. He, and H.T. Ping, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based materials and its applications in related devices,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 47, pp. 1822-1873, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1039/C6CS00915H.

K.N. Konstantin, O. Bulent, C.S. Hannes, K.P. Robert, A.A. Ilhan, and C. Roberto, “Raman spectra of graphite oxide and functionalized graphene sheets,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, pp. 36-41, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1021/nl071822y.

J.A. Small, “The analysis of particles at low accelerating voltages (10 kV) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS),” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 107, pp. 555-556, 2002, https://doi.org/10.6028/jres.107.047.

Downloads

Additional Files

Published

2020-12-22

How to Cite

[1]
G. Puranik, A. Sarkar, N. Mishra, S. C. Gurumurthy, and S. Mundinamani, “Soldering of copper using graphene-phosphoric acid gel”, J. Met. Mater. Miner., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 60-67, Dec. 2020.

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles