Assessment of hydrothermal parameters on alkaline activation of fly ashes using a central composite design
Keywords:coal fly ash, zeolitic materials, hydrothermal method, central composite design
Coal fly ash (CFA) is a powder generated during combustion of coal; its improper disposal constitutes an environmental issue. To minimize this problem, one of the uses of CFA is as feedstock for production of zeolite. Different studies have shown that zeolites may be easily obtained from CFA by relatively cheap and fast conversion processes. Most of these studies have been focused on the study of the zeolite synthesis using classical methods through changing one factor per time and fixing the other factors, where it illustrates the impact of each variable individually via a huge number of experiments, however it doesn’t consider the effect of the interaction between different factors under study.
This study aims to evaluate the effects of hydrothermal synthesis parameters, time of activation (t), temperature of synthesis (T) and concentration of alkaline activator ([NaOH]), on the formation of zeolite. Morphological and structural properties were determined through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The experiments were designed through a central composite design. The results revealed that 4M NaOH, 90℃ and time synthesis of 36 h were the conditions for a higher conversion of CFA into sodalite, furthermore, it was obtained P1-Na and losod as zeolite phases.
Q. Xavier, P. Felicià, A, Andrés, and L-S. Angel, “Synthesis of Na-zeolites from fly ash,” Fuel, vol. 76, pp. 793-799, 1997.
Y. Hefni, Y. A. El Zaher, and M. Abdel Wahab, “Influence of activation of fly ash on the mechanical properties of concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 172, pp. 728-734, 2018.
R. Mistry and T. Kumar Roy, “Effect of using fly ash as alternative filler in hot mix asphalt,” Perspectives in Science, vol. 8, pp. 307-309, 2016.
F. Fan, Z. Liu, G. Xu, H. Peng, and C. Cai, “Mechanical and thermal properties of fly ash based geopolymers,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 160, pp. 66-81, 2018.
J. Yu, Y. Yang, W. Chen, D. Xu, H. Guo, K. Li, and H. Liu, “The synthesis and application of zeolitic material from fly ash by one-pot method at low temperature,” Green Energy & Environment, vol. 1, pp. 166-171, 2016.
S. C. Colin, and A. C. Paul, “The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites: Precursors, intermediates and reaction mechanism,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 82, pp. 1-78, 2005.
E. B. G. Johnson, and E. A. Sazmal, “Hydrothermally synthesized zeolites based on kaolinite: A review,” Applied Clay Science. vol. 97, pp. 215–221, 2014.
R. M. Ramírez-Zamora, M. Solís-López, I. Robles-Gutierrez, Y. Reyes-Vidal, and F. Espejel-Ayala, “A Statistical Industrial Approach for the Synthesis Conditions of Zeolites Using Fly Ash and Kaolinite,” Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, vol. 37, pp. 318-332, 2018.
A. Moutsatsou, E. Stamatakis, K. Hatzitzotzia and V. Protonotarios, “The utilization of Ca-rich and Ca–Si-rich fly ashes in zeolites production,” Fuel, vol. 85, pp. 657-663, 2006.
R. Peña Penilla, A. Guerrero Bustos, and S. Goñii Elizalde, “Immobilization of Cs, Cd, Pb and Cr by synthetic zeolites from Spanish low-calcium coal fly ash,” Fuel, vol. 85 pp. 823-832, 2006.
A. Derkowski, W. Franus, E. Beran and Adriana Czímerová, “Properties and potential applications of zeolitic materials produced from fly ash using simple method of synthesis,” Powder Technology, vol. 166, pp. 47–54, 2006.
O. B. Kotova, I. N. Shabalin, D. A. Shushkov, and L. S. Kocheva, “Structural, Functional and Bioceramics. Hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash,” Advances in Applied Ceramics, vol. 115, pp. 152-157, 2016.
M. Wdowin, M. M. Wiatros-Motyka, R. Panek, A. L. Stevens, W. Franus and C. E. Snape, “Experimental study of mercury removal from exhaust gases,” Fuel, vol. 128, pp. 451-457, 2014.
Z. Adamczyk, and B. Bialecka, “Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolites from Polish Coal Fly Ash,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 14, pp. 713-719, 2005.
A. M. Cardoso, A. Paprocki, L S. Ferret, C. M. N. Azevedo, and M. Pires, “Synthesis of zeolite Na-P1 under mild conditions using Brazilian coal fly ash and its application in wastewater treatment,” Fuel, vol. 139, pp. 59–67, 2015.
N. Shigemoto, H. Hayashi, and K. Miyaura, “Selective formation of Na-X zeolite from coal fly ash by fusion with sodium hydroxide prior to hydrothermal reaction,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 28, pp.4781-4786, 1993.
V. K. Jha, M. Nagae, M. Matsuda, and M. Miyake, “Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and heavy metal ion removal characteristics of thus-obtained Zeolite X in multi-metal systems,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 90, pp. 2507-2514, 2009.
X. Ren, L. Xiao, R. Qu, S. Liu, D. Ye, H. Song, W. Wu, C. Zheng, X. Wu, and X. Gao, “Synthesis and characterization of a single phase zeolite A using coal fly ash,” RSC Advances, vol 8, pp. 42200-42209, 2018.
K. Ojha, N. C. Pradhan, and A. N. Samanta, “Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 27, pp. 555–564, 2004.
K. He, Y. Chen, Z. Tang, and Y. Hu, “Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by zeolite synthesized from fly ash,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 23, pp. 2778-2788, 2016.
N. M. Musyoka, L. F. Petrik, E. Hums, A. Kuhnt, and W. Schwieger, “Thermal stability studies of zeolites A and X synthesized from South African coal fly ash,” Research on Chemical Intermediates, vol. 41, pp. 575-582, 2015.
R. R. Padhy, R. Shaw, S. Tiwari, and S. K. Tiwari, “Ultrafine nanocrystalline mesoporous NaY zeolites from fly ash and their suitability for eco-friendly corrosion protection,” Journal of Porous Materials, vol. 22, pp. 1483-1494, 2015.
A. E. Ameh, O. O. Fatoba, N. M. Musyoka, and L. F. Petrik, “Influence of aluminium source on the crystal structure and framework coordination of Al and Si in fly ash-based zeolite NaA,” Powder Technology, vol. 306, pp. 17-25, 2017.
M. Inada, H. Tsujimoto, Y. Eguchi, N. Enomoto, and J. Hojo,” Microwave-assisted zeolite synthesis from coal fly ash in hydrothermal process,” Fuel, vol. 84, pp. 1482-1486, 2005.
T. Fukasawa, A. D. Karisma, D. Shibata, A. N. Huang, and K. Fukui, “Synthesis of zeolite from coal fly ash by microwave hydrothermal treatment with pulverization process,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 28, pp. 798-804, 2017.
A. B. Marcos, E. S. Ricardo, P. O. Eliane, S. V. Leonardo, and A. E. Luciane, “Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry,” Talanta, vol. 76, pp. 965-977, 2008.
L. Zhou, Y.L. Chen, X. H. Zhang, F. M. Tian, and Z. N. Zu, “Zeolites developed from mixed alkali modified coal fly ash for adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Materials Letters, vol. 119, pp.140–142, 2014.
K. Byrappa, and M. Yoshimura, Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology. New Jerse, Noyes Publications, 2001.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.