Laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V-xCu: Process parameters


  • Thywill Ccphas DZOGBEWU Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Central University of Technology, Free State, 9301 Bloemfontein, South Africa.



Process parameters, LPBF, single tracks, single layers, Cu


The original intent of coating biomedical and surgical devices surface with antibacterial agents is to prevent infections. However, the difference in the material properties between the biomedical devices and the coating materials causes the coating material to spall from the biomedical devices. To address the situation, the current research focused on investigating the possibility of using laser powder bed fusion process a subset of additive manufacturing technology to in situ alloy 1 at% Cu with Ti6Al4V. In situ alloying 1 at% Cu with Ti6Al4V would lead to the production of medical and surgical devices with inbuilt antibacterial property. To determine the optimum process parameters that could be used to manufacture the Ti6Al4V- 1 at% Cu alloy, single tracks were produced over a wide range of laser powers and scanning speeds and analyzed. Process parameters of 170 W, 1.0 ms-1 and hatch distance of 80 µm were identified as the possible optimum process parameters for manufacturing the Ti6Al4V- 1 at% Cu alloy. Rescanning was identified as a good strategy to improve the surface roughness, homogeneity and surface concentration of the Cu in the Ti6Al4V- 1 at% Cu alloy matrix.


Download data is not yet available.


V. R. Jablokov, M. J. Nutt, M. E. Richelsoph, and H. L. Freese, "The application of Ti-15Mo beta titanium alloy in high strength structural orthopedic applications," In Titanium, Niobium, Zirconium, and Tantalum for Medical and Surgical Applications, Journal of ASTM International, vol. 2(8), 2006.

M. Niinomi, "Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 1(1), pp. 30-42, 2008.

W. M. Dunne, " Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately?," Clinical microbiology reviews, vol. 15(2), pp. 155-166, 2002.

L. Zhao, P. K. Chu, Y. Zhang, and Z. Wu, "Antibacterial coatings on titanium implants," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 19(1), pp. 470-480, 2009.

T. C. Dzogbewu, and W. B. du Preez, “Additive manufacturing of titanium-based implants with metal-based antimicrobial agents,” Metals, vol. 11(3), pp.453, 2021.

C. Jung, L. Straumann, A. Kessler, U. Pieles, and M. de Wild, "Antibacterial copper deposited onto and into the oxide layer of titanium implants," BioNanoMat, vol. 15, pp. S180, 2014.

L. Nan, W. C. Yang, Y. Q. Liu, H. Xu, Y. Li, M. Q. Lu, and K. Yang, "Antibacterial mechanism of copper-bearing antibacterial stainless steel against E. coli," Journal of Materials Science and Technology, vol. 24(2), pp. 197-201, 2008.

T. Shirai, H. Tsuchiya, T. Shimizu, K. Ohtani, Y. Zen, and K. Tomita, "Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium‐copper alloys," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 91(1), pp. 373-380, 2009.

L. Ren, Z. Ma, M. Li, Y. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Liao, and K. Yang, "Antibacterial properties of Ti–6Al–4V–xCu alloys," Journal of Materials Science & Technology, vol. 30(7), pp. 699-705, 2014.

E. Zhang, "A new antibacterial titanium-copper sintered alloy: preparation and antibacterial property," Materials Science & Engineering. C Materials for Biological Applications, vol. 33(7), pp. 4280-4287, 2013.

S. Das, "Physical aspects of process control in selective laser sintering of metals," Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 5(10), pp. 701-711, 2003.

T. C. Dzogbewu, “Laser powder bed fusion of Ti15Mo,” Results in Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 100155, 2020.

I. Yadroitsau, Selective laser melting: Direct manufacturing of 3D-objects by selective laser melting of metal powders, Lambert Academic Publishing, 2009.

T. C. Dzogbewu, “Additive manufacturing of TiAl-based alloys,” Manufacturing Review, vol. 7, pp. 35, 2020.

A. Kinnear, T. C. Dzogbewu, I. Yadroitsev, P. Krakhmalev, and I. Yadroitsava, "Manufacturing, microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V-Cu," in in LiM" Lasers in manufacturing" conference, Munich, 2017.

T. C. Dzogbewu, and Y. D. Arthur, "Comparative studies of locally produced and imported low-carbon steels on the ghanaian market," Journal of Natural Sciences, vol. 1(1), pp. 15-22, 2013.

EOS, "EOS titanium Ti64," EOS GmbH - Electro Optical Systems, 2014.

T. C. Dzogbewu, “Laser powder bed fusion: evaluation of Ti15Mo single tracks,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, vol. 43(6), pp. 487-496, 2020.

T. G. Spears, and S. A. Gold, "In-process sensing in selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing," Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation, vol. 5(1), pp. 1, 2016.

T. C. Dzogbewu, I. Yadroitsev, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsava, and A. Du Plessis, “Optimal process parameters for in-situ alloyed Ti15Mo structures by Direct Metal Laser Sintering”, In SSF 2017-The 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, August 7-9, 2017 (pp. 75-96). University of Texas, 2017.

C. L. Chan, J. Mazumder, and M. M. Chen, "Three-dimensional axisymmetric model for convection in laser-melted pools," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 39(4), pp. 306-311, 1987.

S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, "Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones," Acta Materialia, vol. 108, pp. 36-45, 2016.

L. Rayleigh, "On the instability of a cylinder of viscous liquid under capillary force," The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, vol. 34(207), pp. 145-154, 1892.

I. Yadroitsev, A. Gusarov, I. Yadroitsava, and I. Smurov, "Single track formation in selective laser melting of metal powders," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 210(12), pp. 1624-1631, 2010.

C. Körner, E. Attar, and P. Heinl, "Mesoscopic simulation of selective beam melting processes," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 211(6), pp. 978-987, 2011.

I. Yadroitsev, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsava, S. Johansson, and I. Smurov, "Energy input effect on morphology and microstructure of selective laser melting single track from metallic powder," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 213(4), pp. 606-613, 2013.

W. E. King, H. D. Barth, V. M. Castillo, G. F. Gallegos, J. W. Gibbs, D. E. Hahn, C. Kamath, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Observation of keyhole-mode laser melting in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 214(12), pp. 2915-2925, 2014.

T. W. Eagar, and N. S. Tsai, "Temperature fields produced by traveling distributed heat sources," Welding Journal, vol. 62(12), pp. 346-355, 1983.

J. Yang, J. Han, H. Yu, J. Yin, M. Gao, Z. Wang, and X. Zeng,

"Role of molten pool mode on formability, microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy," Materials & Design, vol. 110, pp. 558-570, 2016.

D. B. Hann, J. Lammi, and J. Folkes, "A simple methodology for predicting laser-weld properties from material and laser parameters," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 44(44), pp. 445401, 2011.

A. Klassen, and K. Carolin, "Modelling of electron beam absorption in complex geometries," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 47(6), pp. 065307, 2014.

A. Zenani, T. C. Dzogbewu, W. B. du Preez, and I. Yadroitsev, "Optimum process parameters for direct metal laser sintering of Ti6Al powder blend," Universal journal of mechanial engineering, vol. 8(4), pp. 170-182, 2020.

C. Körner, A. Bauereiß, and E. Attar, "Fundamental consolidation mechanisms during selective beam melting of powder," Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 21(8), p. 085011, 2013.

S. A. Khairallah, and A. Anderson, "Mesoscopic simulation model of selective laser melting of stainless steel powder," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 214(11), pp. 2627-2636, 2014.

C. Qiu, C. Panwisawas, M. Ward, H. C. Basoalto, J. W. Brooks, and M. M. Attallah, "On the role of melt flow into the surface structure and porosity development during selective laser melting," Acta Materialia, vol. 96, pp. 72-79, 2015.

G. A. Longhitano, M. A. Larosa, A. L. J. Munhoz, C. A. D. C. Zavaglia, and M. C. F. Ierardi, "Surface finishes for Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by direct metal laser sintering," Materials Research, vol. 18(4), pp. 838-842, 2015.

X. Liu, P. K. Chu, and C. Ding, "Surface modification of titanium, titanium alloys, and related materials for biomedical applications," Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, vol. 47(3), pp. 49-121, 2004.

T. C. Dzogbewu, “Laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V lattice structures and their applications,” Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, vol. 30(4), 2020.

J. Maisonneuve, C. Colin, and P. Aubry, "Profile Project: direct manufacturing of aerospace components by laser cladding and laser sintering," Scottsdale, USA, 2007.

B. Duleba, F. Greškovič, and J. W. Sikora, "Materials and finishing methods of DMLS manufactured parts," Transfer Inovácií, vol. 21, pp. 143-148, 2011.

D. Bergström, J. Powell, and A. F. H. Kaplan, "A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101(11), pp. 113504-113504, 2007.

M. P. P. Gharbi, C. Gorny, M. Carin, S. Morville, P. Le Masson, D. Carron, and R. Fabbro, "Influence of various process conditions on surface finishes induced by the direct metal deposition laser technique on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy," Journal of materials processing technology, vol. 213(5), pp. 791-800, 2013.




How to Cite

T. C. DZOGBEWU, “Laser powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V-xCu: Process parameters ”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 62–70, Jun. 2021.



Original Research Articles