Using shrimp shells as based catalysts for FAME production from palm oil feedstock
Keywords:Shrimp shells, Basic strength
In this study, waste shrimp shells from industry were used as a heterogeneous bio-based catalyst for trans-esterification reaction of fresh palm oil. CaO was prepared from shrimp shells calcination. Surface area, phase composition, and basicity of the calcined shrimp shell catalysts were studied using N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and CO2 temperature-programmed-desorption (CO2-TPD), respectively. The influence of shrimp shells calcination temperature and operation condition, methanol to palm oil ratio on trans-esterification reaction, were investigated. Five hours trans-esterification was carried out at 65℃ using different shrimp shell at four different calcination temperature: 700, 750, 800 and 850℃ with 9:1 methanol to palm oil ratio to determine the suitable calcined catalyst with the highest FAME yield. Methanol to palm oil ratios were varied from 6:1, 9:1, 12:1 and 15:1 with the selected catalyst. According to the results, the highest basic strength of mixed CaO and hydroxy-apatite phases were received by 800℃ calcined shrimp shell catalyst, with the highest FAME yield of 87.54% under the optimum condition reaction: 65℃ reaction temperature, 5 h reaction time, 9 wt% catalyst loading, and 9:1 methanol to palm oil ratio.
B. Jutika, A.J. Thakur, and D. Dhanapati, “Solid oxide derived from waste shells of Turbonilla striatula as a renewable catalyst for biodiesel production,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, pp. 2061-2067, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.06.008
G. Natarajan, P.N. Subramania, M.M.S.B. Khadhar, and A. Narayanan, “Utilization of a cost-effective solid catalyst derived from natural white bivalve clam shell for transesterification of waste frying oil,” Fuel, vol. 111, pp. 653-658, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.069
R. Rezaei, M. Mohadesi, and G. R. Moradi, “Optimization of biodiesel production using waste mussel shell catalyst,” Fuel, vol. 109, pp. 534-541, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.004
L.L. Seik, C.W. Yong, P.T. Yen, and Y.Y. Sook, “Transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel by using waste obtuse horn shell-derived CaO catalyst,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 93, pp. 282-288, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.067
N. Mijan, L.H. Voon, and Y.H. Taufiq-Yap, “Synthesis and catalytic activity of hydration–dehydration treated clamshell derived CaO for biodiesel production,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 102, pp. 368-377, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2015.07.002
G. Gedda, S. Pandey, Y.C. Lin, and H. F. Wu, “Antibacterial effect of calcium oxide nano-plates fabricated from shrimp shells,” Green Chemistry, vol. 17, pp. 3276-3280, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C5GC00615E
S. Sompech, T. Dasri, and S. Thaomola, “Preparation and characterization of amorphous silica and calcium oxide from agricultural waste,” Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 32(4), pp.1923-1928, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/320418
Y. Zhu, S. Wu, and X. Wang, “Nano CaO grain characteristics and growth model under calcination,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 175, pp. 512-518, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.09.084
N. Tangboriboon, R. Kunanuruksapong, and A. Sirivat, “Preparation and properties of calcium oxide from eggshells via calcination,” Material Science-Poland, vol. 30(4), pp. 313-322, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13536-012-0055-7
S. Shahabi, F. Najafi, A. Majdababi, T. Hooshmand, M.H. Nazarpak, B. Karimi, and S.M. Fatemi, “Effect of gamma irradiation on structural and biological properties of a PLG-PEG-hydroxyapatite composite,” The Scientific World Journal, Hindawi, Article ID 420616,
A.M. Kalinkin, E.V. Kalinkina, O.A. Zalkind, and T.I. Makarova, “Chemical interaction of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide with CO2 during mechanical activation,” Inorganic Materials, vol. 41(10), pp. 1218-1224, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10789-005-0263-1
H.V. Lee, J.C. Juan, N.F.B. Abdullah, R.N. MF, and Y.H. Taufiq-Yap, “Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 8(30), pp. 1-9, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-8-30
M. Kouzu, T. Kasuno, M. Tajika, Y. Sugimoto, S. Yamanaka, and J. Hidaka, “Calcium oxide solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application on biodiesel production,” Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 2798-2806, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.10.019
E. Younes, O. Amadine, and C. Len, “Sodium modified hydroxyapatite: Highly efficient and stable solid- base catalyst for biodiesel production,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 149, pp. 355-367, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.07.028
O. Amadine, Y. Essamlali, A. Fihri, M. Larzek, and M. Zahouily, “Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance of copper-ceria mixed oxide catalysts in phenol hydroxylation,” RSC Advances, vol. 7, pp. 12586-12597, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RA00734E
A. Gaber, M.A. Abdel-Rahim, A.Y. Abdel-Latief, and M.N. Abdel-Salam, “Influence of calcination temperature on the structure and porosity of nanocrystalline SnO2 synthesized by a conventional precipitation method”, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 9, pp. 81-95, 2014.
M.T. Ravanchi, M.R. Fard, S. Fadaeerayeni, and F. Yaripour, “Effect of calcination conditions on crystalline structure and pore size distribution for a mesoporous alumina,” Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 202(4), pp.493-499, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2013.850577
Z.A. Alothman, “A review fundamental aspects of silicate mesoporous materials”, Materials, vol. 5, pp. 2874-2902, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma5122874
R. Ljupkovic, R.D. Micic, and M. Tomic. “Significance of the structural properties of CaO catalyst in the production of biodiesel: An effect on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions”, Hemijiska Industrija, vol. 756 (68), pp. 399-412, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/HEMIND130612063L
G. Chen, R. Shan, C. Liu, and B. Yan, “Biodiesel production from palm oil using active and stable K doped hydroxyapatite catalyst,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 98, pp. 463-469, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.04.012
S. Babak, H. Iman, and A. Z. Abdullah, “Alkaline earth metal oxide catalysts for biodiesel production from palm oil: Elucidation of process behaviors and modeling using response surface methodology,” Iran Journal of Chemistry Chemical Engineering, vol. 32(1), pp. 113-126, 2013.
I.A. Musa“Review: The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 25, pp. 21-31, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.06.007
M. Zabeti, W.M. Ashri, W. Daud, and M.K. Aroura, “Optimization of the activity of CaO/Al2O3 catalyst for biodiesel production using response surface methodology,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 366(1), pp. 154-159, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2009.06.047
K. Prasertsit, P. Phoosakul, and S. Sukmanee, “Use of calcium in palm oil methyl ester production,” Songklanakarin Journal of Science Technology, vol. 36(2), pp. 195-200, 2014.
N. Ngadi, N.F. Hamdan, O. Hassan, R.P. Jaya “Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil Using Egg Shell Waste as Heterogeneous Catalyst,” Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering), vol. 78(9), pp. 59-63, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v78.4502
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.