Mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of biodegradable materials in solid polymer electrolyte


  • Fatin Farhana AWANG Advanced Nano Materials (ANoMa) Research Group, Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Mohd Faiz HASSAN Advanced Nano Materials (ANoMa) Research Group, Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Khadijah Hilmun KAMARUDIN Advanced Nano Materials (ANoMa) Research Group, Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia



Corn starch, Sodium bisulfite, Solid polymer electrolyte, Mechanical, Ionic conductivity


In this paper, the mechanical properties of corn starch-sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) were investigated. The SPE film based on corn starch was doped with different weight percentages (wt%) of NaHSO3 and prepared using a solution casting method. The SPE was tested by using the Tensile Analyzer to determine the tensile strength and Young’s modulus value. The presence of 5 wt% of NaHSO3 content within the corn starch matrix increased the mechanical properties of SPE film from 0.26 MPa to 2.11 MPa of tensile strength while Young’s modulus enlarged from 1.6  10-2 up to 2.6  10-2 MPa. There was found that the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values tended to decrease with the addition of NaHSO3 more than 5 wt%. This study highlighted that adding NaHSO3 not only improved the ionic conductivity but also changed the mechanical properties of the film itself and it is believed that these properties had the potential and beneficial not only in advanced electronic applications but also in the packaging industry.



Download data is not yet available.


M. F. Hassan, and N. S. N. Azimi, "Conductivity and transport properties of starch/glycerin-MgSO4 solid polymer electrolytes," International Journal of Advance and Applied Sciences, vol. 6(5), pp. 38-43, 2019.

K. S. Ngai, S. Ramesh, K. Ramesh, and J. C. Juan, "A review of polymer electrolytes: fundamental, approaches and applications," Ionics, vol. 22(8), pp. 1259-1279, 2016.

M. F. Hassan, and N. Noruddin, "The effect of lithium perchlorate on poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate): Studies based on morphology, structural and electrical conductivity," Materials Physics and Mechanics vol. 36, pp. 8-17, 2018.

M. F. Hassan, and A. K. Arof, "Ionic conductivity in PEO-KOH polymer electrolytes and electrochemical cell performance," physica status solidi (a), vol. 202(13), pp. 2494-2500, 2005.

A. Karmakar, and A. Ghosh, "Structure and ionic conductivity of ionic liquid embedded PEO- LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte," AIP Advances, vol. 4(8), p. 087112, 2014.

L. K. Seng, "Preparation and characterization of solid polymer electrolyte based on carboxylmethyl chitosan, ammonium nitrate and ethylene carbonate.," The Eurasia Proceedings of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (EPSTEM), vol. 2, pp. 10-16, 2018.

T. Tiwari, N. Srivastava, and P. C. Srivastava, "Ion dynamics study of potato starch + sodium salts electrolyte system," International Journal of Electrochemistry, vol. 2013, pp. 1-8, 2013.

F. F. Awang, M. F. Hassan, and K. H. Kamarudin, "Employing an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique to estimate the ion transport parameters in corn starch based

solid polymer electrolyte," International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering Innovation, vol. 2(3), pp. 78-88, 2020.

M. F. Hassan, and H. K. Ting, "Physical and electrical analyses of solid polymer electrolytes," ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 8189-8196, 2018.

C. W. Liew, and S. Ramesh, "Electrical, structural, thermal and electrochemical properties of corn starch-based biopolymer electrolytes," Carbohydrate Polymer, vol. 124, pp. 222-228, 2015.

Z. Zhang, K. Xu, R. Xiaohui, Y-S. Hu, H. Li, X. Huang and L. Chen, "Na3.4Zr1.8Mg0.2Si2PO12 filled poly(ethylene oxide)/ Na(CF3SO2)2N as flexible composite polymer electrolyte for solid-state sodium batteries," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 372, pp. 270-275, 2017.

P. K. Varshney, and S. Gupta, "Natural polymer-based electrolytes for electrochemical devices: a review," Ionics, vol. 17(6), pp. 479-483, 2011.

K. H. Kamarudin, and M. I. N. Isa, "Structural and DC Ionic Conductivity studies of carboxy methylcellulose doped with ammonium nitrate as solid polymer electrolytes," International Journal of Physical Sciences, vol. 8(31), pp. 1581-1587, 2013.

M. N. Z. Mohd Sapri, and A. H. Ahmad "Conductivity and FTIR studies on PEO- NaCF3SO3 solid polymer electrolyte films," Science Letters, vol. 10(1), pp. 11-13, 2016.

S. Shahrudin, and A. H. Ahmad, "Electrical analysis of corn starch-based polymer electrolyte doped with NaCl," Solid State Phenomena, vol. 268, pp. 347-351, 2017.

S. Shahrudin, and A. H. Ahmad, "Corn starch based biopolymer electrolyte doped with Na3PO4," Science Letters, vol. 10(2), pp. 26-30, 2016.

S. Ramesh, and H. M. Ng, "An investigation on PAN–PVC–LiTFSI based polymer electrolytes system," Solid State Ionics, vol. 192(1), pp. 2-5, 2011.

L. Othman, K. B. Md Isa, Z. Osman, and R. Yahya, "Ionic transport studies of gel polymer electrolytes containing sodium salt," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4(4), pp. 5122-5129, 2017.

N. Drewett, J. Gómez-Cámer, B. Acebedo, M. Galceran, and T. Rojo, "Sol-Gel synthesized antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries: Identifying key parameters for optimization," Batteries, vol. 3(4), p. 20, 2017.

D. R. Lu, C. Xiao, and S. Xu, "Starch-based completely biodegradable polymer materials," Express Polymer Letters, vol. 3(6), pp. 366-375, 2009.

H. M. A. Herath, and V. A. Seneviratne, "Electrical and thermal studies on sodium based polymer electrolyte," Procedia Engineering, vol. 215, pp. 124-129, 2017.

K. Sundaramahalingam, N. Nallamuthu, A. Manikandan, D. Vanitha, and M. Muthuvinayagam, "Studies on sodium nitrate based polyethylene oxide/polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymer blend electrolytes," Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 547, pp. 55-63, 2018.

K. Vignarooban, P. Badami, M. A. K. L. Dissanayake, P. Ravirajan, and A. M. Kannan, "Poly-acrylonitrile-based gel-polymer electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries," Ionics, vol. 23(10), pp. 2817-2822, 2017.

A. H. Ahmad, N. Hassan, and M. A. Abrani, "Preparation and characterization of sodium binary system (NaI–Na3PO4) inorganic solid electrolyte," Ionics, vol. 20(3), pp. 389-397, 2013.

Z. Osman, K. B. Md Isa, A. Ahmad, and L. Othman, "A comparative study of lithium and sodium salts in PAN-based ion conducting polymer electrolytes," Ionics, vol. 16(5), pp. 431-435, 2010.

D. R. H. Jones, and M. F. Ashby, "Elastic Moduli," in Engineering Materials 1, pp. 31-47, 2019.

Y. Z. Ma, D. Sobernheim, and J. R. Garzon, "Glossary for Unconventional Oil and Gas Resource Evaluation and Development," pp. 513-526, 2016.

W. Younis, "Chapter 9: The stress analysis environment," in Up and running with autodesk inventor simulation 2011, John Evans, 2nd ed., Elsevier inc., Philadelpha, 2010, pp. 235-275.

M. F. Hassan, N. S. N Azimi, K. H., Kamarudin, C. K., Sheng, "Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Starch- Magnesium Sulphate: Study on Morphology and Electrical Conductivity," ASM Science Journal Special Issue, pp. 17-28, 2018.

A. Ahmad, M. Y. A. Rahman, S. P. Low, & H. Hamzah (2011). Effect of LiBF4 Salt Concentration on the Properties of Plasticized MG49-TiO2 Based Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolyte. ISRN Materials Science, 2011, 1-7.

M. N. Chai, M. M. Chai, and M. I. N. Isa, "Mechanical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Oleic Acid Solid Biopolymer Electrolyte," Materials Science Forum, vol. 929, pp. 186-190, 2018.

A. F. A. Ghani, G. Omar, M. Z. Sulaiman, A. Jumahat, and J. Mahmud, "Elasticity deformation and failure modes behavior of hybrid composite CFRP/GFRP under tensile loading," International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, vol. 5(3), pp. 98-106, 2018.

M. Selvakumar, and D. Krishna Bhat, "LiClO4 doped cellulose acetate as biodegradable polymer electrolyte for supercapacitors," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 110(1), pp. 594-602, 2008.

Y. Li, Z. Sun, D. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, H. Bu, M. Li, Y. Zhang, G. Gao, and S. Ding, "A composite solid polymer electrolyte incorporating MnO2 nanosheets with reinforced mechanical properties and electrochemical stability for lithium metal batteries," Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 4, 2020.

F. Peters, F. Langer, N. Hillen, K. Koschek, I. Bardenhagen, J. Schwenzel, and M. Busse, "Correlation of mechanical and electrical behavior of polyethylene oxide-based solid electrolytes for all-solid state lithium-ion batteries," Batteries, vol. 5(1), pp. 26, 2019.

E. J. Vernon-Carter, J. Alvarez-Ramirez, L. A. Bello-Perez, C. Roldan-Cruz, A. Garcia-Hernandez, and L. Huerta, "The order of addition of corn starch/lithium perchlorate/glycerol affects the optical, mechanical, and electrical properties of a solid polymer electrolyte," Ionics, vol. 23(11), pp. 3111-3123, 2017.

T. Sudiarti, D. Wahyuningrum, B. Bundjali, and I. Made Arcana, "Mechanical strength and ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from cellulose acetate-lithium perchlorate," IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 223, pp. 012052, 2017.

T. Kelly, B. M. Ghadi, S. Berg, and H. Ardebili, "In situ study of strain-dependent ion conductivity of stretchable polyethylene oxide electrolyte," Sci Rep, vol. 6, pp. 20128, 2016.

T. Sudiarti, D. Wahyuningrum, B. Bundjali, and I. M. Arcana, "The effect of cellulose succinate on properties of polymer electrolyte membranes prepared by blending cellulose acetate-lithium perchlorate," International Journal of Engineering Research and Application, vol. 7(9), pp. 41-45, 2017.




How to Cite

F. F. AWANG, M. F. HASSAN, and K. H. KAMARUDIN, “Mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of biodegradable materials in solid polymer electrolyte”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 104–109, Jun. 2021.



Original Research Articles