Sintering behavior of nanostructured β-CPP powder obtained from avian eggshell waste


  • Bruno Silvano SILVA Northern Fluminense State University, Advanced Materials Laboratory/GMCer, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
  • Tarcília Henrique Amaral Correa Northern Fluminense State University, Advanced Materials Laboratory/GMCer, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
  • Rômulo Leite LOIOLA Northern Fluminense State University, Advanced Materials Laboratory/GMCer, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
  • José Nilson França HOLANDA Northern Fluminense State University, Advanced Materials Laboratory/GMCer, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil



B-CPP, Eggshell waste, Sintering, Properties, Microstructure


                In this work the sintering behavior of a nanostructured b-calcium pyrophosphate (b-CPP) powder derived of avian eggshell waste was investigated. The b-CPP pellets were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air for 2h at temperatures ranging from 600℃ to 1200℃. The sintering behavior was evaluated in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density, tensile strength, FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) analysis, and microstructural analysis via SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The results showed that the nanostructured b-CPP powder presented different behaviors with increasing sintering temperature. It was found that sintering at higher temperatures led to greater densification of the b-CPP pellets (92.56% of theoretical density when sintered at 1000℃). However, SEM micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the sintered β-CCP pellets showed the presence of micro-cracks that negatively impact the mechanical strength. Hence, it was concluded that the sintering temperature of 900℃ was found to be the most suitable in terms of densification, mechanical strength, and sintered microstructure for the production of b-CPP bioceramic pellets derived of avian eggshell waste for potential medical application.


Download data is not yet available.


W. Habraken, P. Habibovic, M. Epple, and M. Bohner, “Calcium phosphates in biomedical applications: materials for the future?,” Materials Today, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 69-87, 2016.

S. V. Dorozhkin, “Calcium orthophosphate bioceramics,” Ceramics International, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 13913-13966, 2015.

M. E. Gezawi, U. C. Wölfle, R. Haridy, R. Fliefel, and D. Kaisarly, “Remineralization, regeneration, and repair of natural tooth structure: influence on the future of restorative dentistry practical,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 4899-4919, 2019.

N. Y. Mostafa, “Characterization, thermal stability and sintering of hydroxyapatite powders prepared by different routes,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 94, no. 2-3, pp. 333-341, 2005.

J. S. Sun, Y. H. Tsuang, C. J. Liao, H. C. Liu, Y. S. Hang, and F. H. Lin, “The effects of calcium phosphate particles on the growth of osteoblasts,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 324-334, 1997.

J. H. Lee, D. H. Lee, H. S. Ryu, D. S. Chang, K. S. Hong, and C. K. Lee, “Porous beta-calcium pyrophosphate as a bone graft substitute in a canine bone defect model,” Key Engineering Materials, vol. 240-242, pp. 399-402, 2003.

S. R. Vasant, and M.,J. Joshi, “Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles of calcium pyrophosphate,” Modern Physics Letters B, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 53-62, 2011.

P. Gras, S. Teychené, C. Rey, C. Chavillat, B. Biscares, S. Sarda, and C. Combes, “Crystallisation of a highly metastable hydrated calcium pyrophosphate phase,” CrystEngComm Journal, vol. 15, pp. 2294-2300, 2013.

T. V. Safronova, V. I. Putlayev, K. A. Bessonov, and V. K. Ivanov, “Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate nanopowders,” Processing and Application of Ceramics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 9-14, 2013.

T. Windarti, A. Haris, Y. Astuti, and A. Darmawan, “Synthesis of -calcium pyrophosphate by sol-gel method”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 172, pp. 1-7, 2017.

S. R. Vasant, and M. J. Joshi, “A review on calcium pyro-phosphate and other related phosphate nano bio-materials and their applications,” Review on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 44-57, 2017.

P. Pankaew, E. Hoonnivathana, P. Limsuwan, and K. Naemchanthara, “Temperature effect on calcium phosphate synthesized from chicken eggshells and ammonium phosphate,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 24, pp. 3337-3342, 2010.

S. A Osseni, S. A. S. Bonou, E. V. Sogbo, R. Ahouansou, M. Y. Agbahoungbata, D. Neumeyer, M. Verelst, and R. Mauricot, “Synthesis of calcium phosphate bioceramics based on snail shells: towards a valorization of snail shells from Republic of Benin,” American Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 90-95, 2018.

S. Owuamanam, and D. Cree, “Progress of bio-calcium carbonate waste eggshell and seashell fillers in polymer composites: A review, Journal of Composites Science, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-22, 2020.

A. H. Parsons, “Structure of the eggshell,” Poultry Science, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 213-221, 1982.

A. M. Kingóri, “A review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell membranes,” International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 908-912, 2011.

T. H. A. Corrêa, and J. N. F. Holanda, “Calcium pyrophosphate powder derived from avian eggshell waste,” Cerâmica, vol. 62, no. 363, pp. 278-280, 2016.

E. Champion, “Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 5855-5875, 2013.

B. Mirhadi, “Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics,” Science of Sintering, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 185-193, 2014.

M. Prakasam, J. Locs, K. Salma-Ancane, D. Loca, A. Largeteau, and L. Berzina-Cimdina, “Fabrication, properties and applications of dense hydroxyapatite: a review”, Journal of Functional Biomaterials, vol. 6, pp. 1099-1140, 2015.

M. A. M. Radzuan, A. B. Sulong, F. M. Foudzi, M. Y. Zakaria, and M. I. Ramli, “Study on the influence mechanism of sintering hydroxyapatite (HA),” Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 622-666, 2020.

N. Somers, F. Jean, M. Lasgorceix, H. Curto, G. Urruth, A. Thualt, F. Petit, and A. Leriche, “Influence of dopants on thermal stability and densification of β-tricalcium phosphate powders,” Open Ceramics, vol. 7, p. 100168, 2021.

A. Indurkar, R. Choudhary, K. Rubenis, and J. Locs, “Advances in sintering techniques for calcium phosphates ceramics,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 1-18, 2021.

J. J. Bian, D. W. Kim, and K. S. Hong, “Phase transformation and sintering behavior of Ca2P2O7,” Materials Letters, vol. 58, pp. 347-351, 2004.

Q. Wang, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Yu, and C. Wan, “The effect of sintering temperature on the structure and biodegradability of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate bioceramics,” Ceramics- Silikáty, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 97-102, 2010.

J. N. F. Holanda, “Nanostructured calcium phosphate-based bioceramics from waste materials,” in Handbook of Ecomaterials, ed. Switzerland: Spring International Publishing AG, 2017, pp. 1-18.

T. Fett, “T-stresses in rectangular plates and circular disks,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 60, no. 5-6, pp. 631-652, 1998.

F. Chen, Z. Sum, and J. Shu, “Mode I fracture analysis of the double edge cracked Brazilian disk using a weight function method,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 475-479, 2001.

T. H. A. Corrêa, and J. N. F. Holanda, “Synthesis and characterization of sustainable calcium phosphate nanopowders using eggshell waste,” Trends in Physical Chemistry, vol. 17, pp. 75-82, 2017.

P. Kamalanathan, S. Ramesh, L. T. Bang, A. Niakan, C. Y. Tan, J. Purbolaksono, and H. Chandran, “Synthesis and sintering of hydroxyapatite derived from eggshell as a calcium precursor,” Ceramics International, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 16349-16359, 2014.

D. K. Pattanayak, R. Dash, R. C. Prasad, B. T. Rao, and T. R. Mohan, “Synthesis and sintered properties evaluation of calcium phosphate ceramics,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 684-690, 2007.

M. Z. A. Khiri, K. A. Matori, M. H. M. Zaid, C. A. C. Abdullah, N. Zainuddin, I. M. Alibe, N. A .A. Rahman, S. A. A. Wahab, A. Z. K. Azman, and N. Effendy, “Crystallization behavior of low-cost biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic at high sintering temperatures derived from high potential calcium waste sources,” Results in Physics, vol. 12, pp. 638-644, 2019.

C. Calvo, “The crystal structure of α-C2P2O7,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1345-1351, 1968.

J. E. Blendell, and W. Rheinheimer, “Solid-state sintering,” in Encyclopedia of Materials: Technical Ceramics and Glasses, ed. Elsevier, 2021, pp. 249-257.

M. Yetmez, “Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2014, pp. 1-5, 2014.




How to Cite

B. S. SILVA, T. H. A. . Correa, R. L. LOIOLA, and J. N. F. HOLANDA, “Sintering behavior of nanostructured β-CPP powder obtained from avian eggshell waste”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 86–92, Mar. 2022.



Original Research Articles