Ni electroless plating of ABS polymer by Palladium and Tin-free process
Keywords:Electroless plating, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Nickel, Cobalt
AbstractA palladium and tin-free process for the Ni electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer has been developed. The ABS was first etched then activated with Ni (or Co) ions. Ni or Co adsorbed was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Sodium borohydride solution was found to be effective in reduction of Ni (or Co) ions. By immersing in a Ni plating bath the Co (or Ni) can then auto-catalytically deposit a Ni film on the ABS. The amount and thickness of Ni film determined by SEM-EDX were the highest when using 3 g/L of nickel acetate solution, 0.5 M sodium borohydride solution at 60 s of the reduction time. Adhesion of Ni films was evaluated by the Scotch\tape test according to ASTM D3359, which indicated good adhesion between Ni film and ABS substrate. The adhesion strength of the Ni layer deposited was successfully compared with the adhesion of similar films deposited by the usual palladium-based seed process.
Long, D. P., Blackburn, J. M. and Watkins, J. J. (2000). Chemical fluid deposition: A hybrid technique for low temperature metallization. Adv. Mater. 12: 913-915.
De Bruyn, K.,Van Stappen, M., De Deurwaerder, H., Rouxhet, L. and Celis, J. P. (2003). Study of pretreatment methods for vacuum metallization of plastics. Surf. Coat. Technol. 163: 710-715.
Warshawsky, A., Upson, D. A., Ferrar, W. T. and Monnier, J. R.(1989). Zerovalent metal polymer composites. III. Metallization of metal oxide surfaces with the aid of metalized functional polymer microdispersions. J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. 27: 3015.
Bruyn, K.D., Stappen, M.V., Deurwaerder, H.D., Rouxhet, L. Celis, J.P.(2003). Study of pretreatment methods for vacuum metallization of plastics. Surf. Coat.Tech. 163-164: 710-715.
Oh, K. W., Kim, D. J. Kim, S. H. (2002). Improved adhesion property and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of electroless Cu - plated layer on poly (ethylene terephthalate) by plasma treatment. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 84 : 1369-1379.
Wang, G. X., Li, N. Hu, H. L. and Yu, Y. C. (2006). Process of direct copper plating on ABS plastics. Appl.Surf. Sci. 253:480-484.
Wang, G. X., Li, N. And Li, D. Y. (2007). Effect of Pd ions in the chemical etching solution. J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing 14: 286-289.
Jiang, B. Q., Xiao, L., Hu, S. F., Peng, J., Zhang, H. and Wang, M. W.(2009). Optimization and kinetics of electroless Ni–P–B plating of quartz optical fiber. Opt. Mater. 31 : 1532-1539.
Nicolas-Debarnot, D., Pascu, M., Vasile, C. and Poncin-Epaillard, F.(2006). Influence of the polymer pre-treatment before its electroless metallization. Surf. Coating Tech. 200: 4257-4265.
Eom, K., Cho, K.. and Kwon, H.(2008). Effects of electroless deposition conditions on microstructures of cobalt-phosphorous catalysts and their hydrogen generation properties in alkaline sodium borohydride solution. J. Power Sources 180(1): 484-490.
Meek, R. L.(1975). Rutherford scattering study of catalyst systems for electroless Cu plating-2. SnCl2 sensitization and PdCl2 activation. J. Electrochem. Soc. 122(11): 1478-1481.
Hsiao, Y. S., Whang, W. T., Wu, S. C. and Chuang,K.R. (2008). Chemical formation of palladium-free surfacenickelized polyimide film for flexible electronics. Thin Solid Films 516: 4258-4266.
Matsumura, Y., Enomoto, Y., Sugiyama, M., Akamatsu, K. and Nawafune, H.(2008). Direct metallization of nickel on polymeric template patterns for fabrication of copper circuits on glass substrates. J. Mater. Chem. 18: 5078-5082.
Charbonnier, M. and Romand, M. (2003).Polymer pretreatments for enhanced adhesion of metals deposited by the electroless process. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 23:277-285.
Zhang, M.C., Kang, E.T., Neoh,K.G. and Tan, K.L. (2001). Electroless plating of copper and nickel on surface - modified poly (tetrafluoroethylene) films. J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 : C71-C80.
Zhang, J.Y., Esrom, H. And Boyd, I.W. (1996). Decomposition mechanisms of thin palladium acetate film with excimer UV radiation. Appl. Surf. Sci. 96 : 399-404.
Omura,Y., Renbutsu, E., Morimoto, M., Saimoto, H. and Shigemasa, Y. (2003). Synthesis of new chitosan derivatives and combination with biodegradable polymer. Polym. Adv. Technol. 14 : 35-39.
Seita ,M., Kusaka, M., Nawafune, H. And Mizumoto, S.(1996). Direct metallization on surface - modified polyimide resin. Plating Surf. Finish. 83 : 57-62.
Garcia, A., Berthelot, T., Viel, P., Mesnage, A., Jgou, P., Nekelson, F., Roussel, S. and Palacin, S. (2010). ABS Polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly (acrylic acid) covalent grafting. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (4):1177-1183.
Harper, C. A. and Petrie, E. M.(2009). Plastics Materials and Processes: A Concise Encyclopedia. Wiley: Berlin : 200.
Tang, X., Cao, M., Bi, C., Yan, L. and Zhang, B.(2008). Research on a new surface activation process s for electroless pl on ABS plastic. Mater. Lett. 62: 1089-1091.
Charbonnier, M., Romand, M., Kogelschatz, U., Esrom, H. and Seebock, R.(2001). In: Mittal, K.L.(ed.), Metallized Plastics 7: Fundamental and Applied Aspects. VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands: 3.
Zabetakis, D. and Dressick, W. J. (2009). Selective electroless metallization of patterned polymeric films for lithography applications. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 1: 4-25.
Charbonnier, M., Romand, M. and Goepfert, Y. (2004). Direct Ni electroless metallization of poly(etherimide) without using palladium as a catalyst. Trans. Mater.Heat Treat. 25(5): 1106-1111.
Li, J. and Wang, L., Liu, H. (2010). A new process for preparing conducting wood veneers by electroless nickel plating. Surf Coat. Technol. 204 : 1200-1205.
Mallory, G.O. (1990). Electroless Plating : Fundamentals and Applications. Orlando, Fl : The Society.
Chou, K-S., Chang, S-C. and Huang, K-C. (2007).Study on the characteristics of nanosized nickel particles using sodium borohydride to promote conversion. AzoJ. Mat. (online),3:2-14.DOI 10:2240/azojomo 0232.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.