Gas pressure and coating distance for nanohydroxyapatite deposition on stainless steel 316L using flame spray technique


  • Angga SAPUTRA Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. IPB University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
  • Utami Dyah SYAFITRI Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. IPB University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
  • Toto SUDIRO Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang 15314, Indonesia
  • Gerald Ensang TIMUDA Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Science, Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang 15314, Indonesia
  • Yessie Widya SARI Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. IPB University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia


Biocompatibility, Biomaterial, Bone implant, Flame spray coating, Nanohydroxyapatite


 Metal implant coating engineering is needed to improve the surface biocompatibility properties of metals.  For this, coating metal surfaces with bioactive and biocompatible biomaterials will be an option. Having high biocompatibility as well as similarity in chemical properties, nanohydroxyapatite may be a candidate as biomaterials for coating the metal implant. The key to the success of metal implant plating is the formation of pores which increase the bioactivity and biocompatibility properties of the implant. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite was used to be coated on stainless steel type 316L (SS316L). To ensure that the coating works properly on the surface, an appropriate measure of gas and distance is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible firing distance and gas pressure of the flame spray coating technique. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and optical microscopy (OM) characterizations were carried out to determine the phase, morphology, and presence of pores. After coated product, hydroxyapatite dehydroxylation occurred which led to the tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) phases. The thickness decreases with the addition of gas pressure and the farther the firing distance the layer thickness decreases. Nanohydroxyapatite coating on a bone implant substrate can increase the porosity of the layer. 


Download data is not yet available.


T. Hryniewicz, K. Rokosz, and M. Filippi, “Biomaterial studies on AISI 316L stainless steel after magnetoelectropolishing,” Materials, vol. 2, pp. 129-145, 2009.

N. Godbole, S. Yadav, M. Ramachandran, and S. Belemkar, “A review on surface treatment of stainless steel orthopedic implants,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 36, pp. 190-194, 2016.

V. Huynh, N. K. Ngo, and T. D. Golden, “Surface activation and pretreatments for biocompatible metals and alloys used in biomedical applications,” International Journal of Biomaterials, vol. 3806504, pp. 1-21, 2019.

N. S. Manam, W. S. W. Harun, D. N. A. Shri, S. A. C. Ghani, T. Kurniawan, M. H. Ismail, and M. H. I. Ibrahim, “Study of corrosion in biocompatible metals for implants: a review,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 701, pp. 698-715, 2017.

E. Mohseni, E. Zalnezhad, and A. R. Bushroa, “Comparative investigation on the adhesion of hydroxyapatite coating on Ti–6Al–4V implant: Areview paper,” International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives, vol. 48, pp. 238-257, 2014.

A. Parsapour, S. N. Khorasani, and M. H. Fathi, “Corrosion Behavior and Biocompatibility of Hydroxyapatite Coating on H2SO4 Passivated 316L SS for Human Body Implant,” Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters), vol. 26, pp. 409-415, 2013.

V. K. Mishra, S. K. Srivastava, B. P. Asthana, and D. Kumar, “Structural and spectroscopic studies of hydroxyapatite nanorods formed via microwave-assisted synthesis route,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 95, pp. 2709-2715, 2012.

B. Ghiasi, Y. Sefidbakht, and M. Rezaei, “Hydroxyapatite for Biomedicine and Drug Delivery,” Advanced Structured Materials, vol. 104, pp. 85-120, 2019.

X. Gao, C. Dai, W. Liu, Y. Liu, Ru. Shen, X. Zheng, K. Duan, J. Weng, and S. Qu, “High-scale yield of nano hydroxyapatite through combination of mechanical activation and chemical dispersion,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 1-9, 2017.

N.A. Sajahan, and W.M.A.W. Ibrahim, “Microwave irradiation of nanohydroxyapatite from chicken eggshells and duck eggshells,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 275984 pp. 1-7, 2014.

R. Kumar, and S. Kumar, “Thermal spray coating: a study,” International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, vol. 7, pp. 610-617, 2018.

Y.C. Liu, G.S. Lin, J.Y. Wang, C.S. Cheng, Y.C. Yang, B.S. Lee, and K.L. Tung, “Synthesis and characterization of porous hydroxyapatite coatings deposited on titanium by flame spraying,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 349, pp. 357-363, 2018.

T.P. Singh, H. Singh, and H. Singh, “Characterization of thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on some biomedical implant materials,” The Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials, vol. 12, pp. 48-56, 2014.

R.B. Heimann, “Plasma-sprayed hydroxylapatite-based coatings: chemical, mechanical, microstructural, and biomedical properties,” Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol. 25, pp. 827-850, 2016.

A. Bandyopadhyay, F. Espana, V.K. Balla, S. Bose, Y. Ohgami, and N.M. Davies, “Influence of porosity on mechanical properties and in vivo response of Ti6Al4V implants,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 6, pp. 1640-1648, 2010.

A. Deing, B. Luthringer, D. Laipple, T. Ebel, and R. Willumeit, “A porous TiAl6V4 implant material for medical application,” International Journal of Biomaterials, pp. 1-9, 2014.

Y. Chena, J. Frith, A.D. Manshadia, H. Attara, and D. Kenta, “Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of porous titanium scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 75, pp. 169-174, 2017.

A. Oryan, S. Alidadi, A. Moshiri, and N. Maffulli, “Bone regenerative medicine: classic options, novel strategies, and future directions,” Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, vol. 9, pp. 18, 2014.

S. Siswanto, D. Hikmawati, U. Kulsum, D.I. Rudyardjo, R. Apsari, and A. Aminatun, “Biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of scaffold porous composite collagen-hydroxyapatite based coral for bone regeneration,” Open Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 584-590, 2020.

O. Graßmann, and R.B. Heimann, “Compositional and microstructural changes of engineered plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates during incubation in protein-free simulated body fluid,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 53, pp. 685-93, 2000.

R. Gadow, A. Killinger, and N. Stiegler, “Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications deposited by different thermal spray techniques,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 205, pp. 1157-1164, 2010.

Y. Kayali, O. Aslan, M. Karabaş, and S. Talaş, “Corrosion behaviour of single and doubble layer hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel by plasma spray,” Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, vol. 52, pp. 1079-1085, 2016.

A. Singh, G. Singh, and V. Chawla, “Characterization and mechanical behaviour of reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by vacuum plasma spray on SS-316L alloy”, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 79, pp. 273-282, 2018.

G.J. Odhiambo, W.G. Li, Y.T. Zhao, and C.L. Li, “Porosity and its significance in plasma sprayed coating: A Review,” Coatings, vol. 9, pp. 1-19, 2019.

J. Jeong, J.H. Kim, J.H. Shim, N.S. Hwang, and C.Y. Heo, “Bioactive calcium phosphate materials and applications in bone regeneration,” Biomaterials Research, vol. 23, pp. 1-11, 2019.

T. Qin, X. Li, H. Long, S. Bin, and Y. Xu, “Bioactive tetracalcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering for bone regeneration applications,” Materials, vol. 13, pp. 1-12, 2020.

J. Liu, J. Liao, Y. Li, Z. Yang, Q. Ying, Y. Xie, and A. Zhou, “Bioactive tetracalcium phosphate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement for bone repair,” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 34, pp. 239-249, 2019.

J. Singh, S.S. Chatha, and H. Singh, “Characterization and corrosion behavior of functional gradient hydroxyapatite coating,” Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol. 27, pp. 1371-1380, 2018.

H. Hermawan, D. Ramdan, and J.R.P. Djuansjah, “Metals for Biomedical Applications,” Biomedical Engineering - From Theory to Applications, ed Prof. Reza Fazel: InTech, ISBN: 978-953-307-637-9, 2011.

L. Shao, G. Xie, G. Zhang, X. Liu, W. Lu, G. He, and J. Huang, “Combustion of metals in oxygen-enriched atmospheres,” Metals, vol. 10, pp. 1-14, 2020.




How to Cite

A. SAPUTRA, U. D. SYAFITRI, T. SUDIRO, G. E. TIMUDA, and Y. . W. . SARI, “Gas pressure and coating distance for nanohydroxyapatite deposition on stainless steel 316L using flame spray technique”, J. Met. Mater. Miner., vol. 31, no. 1, Mar. 2021.



Original Research Articles