The effect of artificial defects on the fatigue characteristics of AISI 4340 steel
Keywords:Low alloy steel, High cyclic fatigue, Surface roughness, Artificial defects, Shot peening
This study examined the fatigue life (Nf) and fatigue limit (FL) of AISI 4340 steel in relation to surface roughness, artificial defects and shot peening. Artificial surface defects on fatigue specimens were obtained by electrical discharge machining (EDM) or by pre-corrosion in 3.5% NaCl and perchloric acid solutions, followed by a fatigue test. The presence of artificial defects of various sizes, taken into account by the
area parameter, led to a significant decrease in fatigue characteristics, while shot peening contributed to their noticeable improvement. Defects resulting from electrochemical corrosion had a much greater negative effect on fatigue life than defects introduced by EDM.
Y.-L. Lee, I. Pan, R. Hathaway, and M. Barkey, Fatigue testing and analysis (Theory and Practice), Amsterdam, Boston-Tokyo: Elsevier Inc., 2005.
S. R. Lampman, “Fatigue and Fracture”, in ASM Handbook, ASM International, Metals Park, OH, pp. 596-597, 1996.
Y. Murakami, and M. Endo, “Quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength of metals containing various small defects or cracks,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 17, pp.1-15, 1983. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-7944(83)90018-8
Y. Murakami, and M. Endo, “Effects of defects, inclusions and inhomogeneities on fatigue strength,” Fatigue, vol. 16, pp. 163-182, 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0142-1123(94)90001-9
J. T. Cammett, and P. S. Prevey, “Fatigue strength restoration in corrosion pitted 4340 alloy steel via low plasticity burnishing,” Lambda Research, Cincinnati, OH, report, 10 p., 2006.
J. Sakamoto, Y. Takahashi, Y. Aono, and H. Noguchi, “Method for assessing applicability of an artificial flaw as a small initial crack for fatigue limit evaluation and its application to a drill hole and an FIB processed sharp notch in annealed 0.45% carbon steel,” Journal of Test Evaluation, vol. 41, no. 2, pp.1-7, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/JTE20120176
B. M. Schönbauer, K. Yanase, and M. Endo, “The influence of various types of small defects on the fatigue limit of precipitation-hardened 17-4PH stainless steel”. International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 100, pp. 540-548, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.12.021
J. Sakamoto, Y.-S. Lee, and S.-K. Cheong, “Effect of surface flaw on fatigue strength of shot-peened medium - carbon steel,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 133, pp. 99-111, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.11.005
K. Takahashi, T. Amano, K. Ando, and F. Takahashi, "Improvement of fatigue limit by shot peening for high-strength steel containing a crack‐like surface defect," International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 281-292, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17579861111162888
I. Fernández-Pariente, S. Bagherifard, M. Guagliano, and R. Ghelichi, “Fatigue behavior of nitrided and shot peened steel with artificial small surface defects,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 103, pp. 2-9, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2012.09.014
J. R. Donahue, and J. T. Burns,” Effect of chloride concentration on the corrosion–fatigue crack behavior of an age-hardenable martensitic stainless steel,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 91, Part 1, pp.79-99, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.05.022
S.I. Rokhlin, and J.-Y. Kim, “In situ ultrasonic monitoring of surface fatigue crack initiation and growth from surface cavity,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 25, pp. 41-49, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-1123(02)00055-5
S. Baiker, Shot Peening: A Dynamic Application and Its Future, Ed., Publisher, MFN -Metal Finishing News, 182 p., 2006.
Procedures for Using Standard Shot Peening Test Strip: SAE J443 JAN84 SAE recommended practice. Amer. Nation. Standards Inst., Society of Automotive Engineers, 4 p. 1985.
D. Wu, C. Yao, and D. Zhang, “Surface characterization and fatigue evaluation in GH4169 superalloy: Comparing results after finish turning; shot peening and surface polishing treatments,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 113, pp. 222-235, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.04.009
ASTM E1558, “Standard Guide for Electrolytic Polishing of Metallographic Specimens”, Publ. ASTM, Dec. 1999.
H. Itoga, K. Tokaji, M. Nakajima, and H.-N. Ko, “Effect of surface roughness on step-wise S–N characteristics in high strength steel,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 25 pp. 379-385, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-1123(02)00166-4
M. Suraratchai, J. Limido, C. Mabru, and R. Chieragatti, “Modelling the influence of machined surface roughness on the fatigue life of aluminium alloy,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2119-2126, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2008.06.003
H. Masuo, Y. Tanaka, S. Morokoshi, H. Yagura, T. Uchida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Murakami, “Influence of defects, surface roughness and HIP on the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured by additive manufacturing,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 117, pp. 163-179, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.07.020
M. F. Garwood, H. H. Zurburg, and M. A. Erickson. “Correlation of laboratory tests and service performance,” in: Interpretation of tests and correlation with service, American Society for Metals, Ch. 1, pp. 1-77, 1951.
Y. Murakami, “Material defects as the basis of fatigue design,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 41, pp. 2-10, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.12.001
V. Kerlins, Modes of Fracture, ASM Handbook, vol 12: Fractography, ASM International, pp. 12-71, 1987. DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12. a0001831. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
M. A. S. Torres, and H. J. Cvoorwald, “An evaluation of shot peening, residual stress and stress relaxation on the fatigue life of AISI 4340 steel,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 877-886, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-1123(01)00205-5
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.