The Role of Cation Exchange Capacity on the Formation of Polystyrene-Clay Nanocomposites by In-situ Intercalative Polymerization
Keywords:nanocomposites, polystyrene, surfactants, montmorillonite, intercalation
The effect of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on the formation of polystyrene clay nanocomposites is reported. Two types of 2:1 layered silicate having different CEC’s, Wyoming (SWy, 97 meq/100g of clay) and Bentonite-H (BNH, 131 meq/100g of clay) were investigated. The organoclay was prepared by mixing purified clay with octadecyldimethylammonium chloride (ODA) in aqueous solution. The packing of the intercalated ODA surfactant was found to depend on the CEC and the degree of solvent extraction. Two possible phases of the interlayer packing, solidlike and liquidlike, were detected for the extracted BNH due to the charge heterogeneity of the clay. The liquidlike phase shows a good affinity toward styrene monomer which promotes a formation of exfoliated nanocomposites. On the other hand, the solidlike phase shows a restricted dispersion in styrene monomer. The organoclay interlayer shows a limited expansion by the styrene monomer. This leads to the formation of intercalated nanocomposites. An increase in the percentage of organoclay loading hinders a formation of the exfoliated nanocomposites.
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