Effect of micro graphite particles on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of aluminium 6061 (Al-Mg-Si) alloy composites developed by novel two step casting technique
Keywords:Graphite Particles, Microstructure, Tensile Strength, Fractography
In the present research, the effect of micron sized graphite addition on the microstructure and tensile failure of Al6061 alloy has been studied. The Al6061 alloy metal matrix composites reinforced with 6, 9 and 12 varying weight percentages of graphite particles were fabricated by novel two step stir cast route which helps in improving the wettability of Al6061 alloy matrix with graphite particles. The synthesized composites were subjected to microstructural studies, density, hardness and tensile properties testing. Microstructural characterizations of obtained samples were carried out by SEM microscopy, EDS and XRD patterns. The occurrence of graphite particles were confirmed by the XRD patterns. The density and hardness of metal composites have been decreased with adding of graphite reinforcement, while the ultimate tensile strength and yield strengths were improved with the addition of graphite particles. There was increase in the elongation of the Al6061 alloy composite after the incorporation of the reinforcement. Various fracture mechanisms were observed in the Al6061-graphite composites using SEM.
M. Nagaral, V. Auradi, S. A. Kori, “Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Graphite particulate Reinforced Al6061 Alloy Composite Materials,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592-594, pp.170-174, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.592-594.170
M. Nagaral, V. Auradi, and S. A. Kori, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al6061-graphite composites fabricated by stir-casting process,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 766-767, pp. 308-314, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.766-767.308
G. Pathalinga Prasad, H. C Chittappa, M. Nagaral, and V. Auradi, “Effect of the reinforcement particle size on the compressive strength and impact toughness of LM29 alloy-B4C composites,” Structural Integrity and Life-interface, vol. 5(7), pp. 14, 2019.
G. P. Prasad, H. C Chittappa, M. Nagaral, and V. Auradi, “Influence of B4C reinforcement particles with varying sizes on the tensile failure and fractography of LM29 alloy composites,” Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 20(6), pp. 2078-2086, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-020-01021-6
M. Nagaral, V. Auradi, S. A. Kori, and V. Hiremath, “Investigations on mechanical and wear behavior of nano Al2O3 particulates reinforced AA7475 alloy composites”, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, vol. 13(1), pp. 4623-4635, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/jmes.13.1.2019.19.0389
P. R jadhav, B. R Sridhar, M. Nagaral, and J. I Harti, “Mechanical behavior and fractography of graphite and boron carbide particulates reinforced A356 alloy hybrid metal matrix composites,” Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials, vol. 3, pp. 114-119, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42114-020-00143-7
M. Nagaral, V. Auradi, S. A Kori, and V. Shivaprasad, “Mechanical characterization and wear behavior of nano TiO2 particulates reinforced Al7075 alloy composites”, Mechanics of Advanced Composite Structures, vol. 7(1), pp. 71-78, 2020.
P. H. Nayak, H. K Srinivas, and M. Nagaral, “Characterization of tensile fractography of nano ZrO2 reinforced copper-zinc alloy composites,” Fracture and Structural Integrity, vol. 48, pp. 370-376, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3221/IGF-ESIS.48.35
N. Fazil, V. Venkataramana, M. Nagaral, and V. Auradi, “Synthesis and mechanical characterization of micro B4C particulates reinforced AA2124 alloy composites,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology UAE, vol. 7(2.23), pp. 225-229, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i2.23.11954
V. Bharath, M. Nagaral, V. Auradi, and S. A. Kori, “Preparation of 6061 Al-Al2O3 MMC’s by Stir Casting and Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Properties,” Procedia Materials Science, vol. 6, pp. 1658-1667, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.151
M. Nagaral, S. Kalgudi, V. Auradi, and S. Kori, “Mechanical characterization of ceramic nano B4C-Al2618 alloy composites synthesized by semi solid processing,” Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society, vol.77(3), pp. 1-4, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0371750X.2018.1506363
N. G. S. Kumar, G. S. Shivashankar, S. Basavarajappa, and R. Suresh, Some studies on mechanical and machining characteristics of Al2219/n-B4C/MoS2 nano hybrid metal matrix composites,” Measurement, vol. 107, pp. 1-11, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.003
B. C. Kandpal, J. Kumar, and H. Singh, “Fabrication and characterization of Al2O3-aluminium Alloy 6061 composites fabricated by stir casting,” Materials Today Proceedings, vol. 4, pp. 2783-2792, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.02.157
Q. Hu, H. Zhao, and F. Li, “Microstructures and properties of SiC particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites fabricated by vacuum assisted high pressure die casting,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 680, pp. 270-277, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2016.10.090
P. Sundriyal, and P. L. Sah, “Enhancement of mechanical properties of graphite particulate aluminium metal matrix composites by magnesium addition,” Materials Today Proceedings, vol. 4, pp. 9481-9486, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.06.208
C. S. Ramesh, R. N. Ahmed, M. A. Mujeebu, and M. Z. Abdullah, “Development and performance analysis of novel cast copper SiC-Gr hybrid composite,” Materials and Design, vol. 30, pp. 1957-1965, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.09.005
J. Singh, and A.Chuan, “Fabrication characteristics and tensile strength of novel Al2024-SiC-red mud composites processing via stir casting route,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 27, pp. 2573-2586, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(17)60285-1
N. Verma, and S. C. Vettivel, “Characterization and experimental analysis of boron carbide and rice husk ash reinforced AA7075 aluminium alloy hybrid composites,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 741, pp. 981-998, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.01.185
V. Bharath, M. Nagaral, and V. Auradi, “Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of Al2O3 reinforced 6061 Al particulate MMCs,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 1(6), pp. 1-6, 2012.
K. Palanikumar, and A. Muniaraj, “Experimental investigation and analysis of thrust force in drilling cast hybrid metal matrix (Al-15% SiC-4% graphite) composites,” Measurement, vol. 53, pp. 240-250, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2014.03.027
K. R. Thangadurai, and A. Asha, “Densification behavior in forming of stir casted aluminium boron carbide composite perform during cold upsetting,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592-594, pp. 117-121, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.592-594.117
V. Hiremath, S. T. Dundur, R. L. Bharath, G. L. Rajesh, and V. Auradi, “Studies on mechanical and machinability properties of B4C reinforced 6061 aluminium MMC produced via melt stirring,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592, pp. 744-748, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.592-594.744
M. Nagaral, V Auradi, K. I. Parashivamurthy, S. A Kori, and B. K. Shivananda, “Synthesis and characterization of Al6061-SiC-Graphite composites fabricated by liquid metallurgy,” Materials Toady Proceedings, vol. 5(1), pp. 2836-2843, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.01.073
T. R. Prabhu, V. K. Varma, and S. Vedantam, “Tribological and mechanical behavior of multilayer Cu-SiC and Gr hybrid composites for brake friction material applications,” Wear, vol. 317, pp. 201-212, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2014.06.006
C. P. Shanthinikethan, D. Mohan Raj, and D. Channankaiah, “Mechanical properties of rice husk graphite reinforced Al6061 matrix composites”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10(9), pp. 7852-7857, 2015.
A. Baradeswaran, and A. E. Perumal, “Study on mechanical and wear properties of Al7075-Al2O3-graphite hybrid composites,” Composites Part B, vol. 56, pp. 464-471, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.013
K. H. W. Seah, S. C. Sharma, and B. M. Girish, “Effect of artificial ageing on the hardness of cast ZA-27-Graphite particulate composites,” Materials and Design, vol. 16(6), pp. 337-341, 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-3069(96)00014-3
R. V .N. Santhosh, J. Sarojini, V. Shabana, and V. K. Lakshmi, “Enhancing the mechanical properties of metal matrix composite by reinforcing aluminium 6063 with graphite and SiC,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 6(16), pp. 1-5, 2018.
G. B. Veereshkumar, A. R. K. Swamy, and A. Ramesha, “Studies on properties of as-cast Al6061-WC-Gr hybrid composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 46(17), pp. 2111-2122, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998311430156
K. H. W. Seah, S. C. Sharma, and B. M. Girish, “Mechanical properties of as cast and heat treated ZA-27-graphite particulate composites,” Composites Part A, vol. 28A, pp. 251-256, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(96)00117-0
V. Mohanvel, K. Rajan, S. Sureshkumar, G. Vijayan, and M. S. Vijayanand, “Study on mechanical properties of graphite particulates reinforced aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stir casting technique,” Materials Today Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 2945-2950, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.01.090
T. Guler, U. Tayfun, E. Bayramli, and M. Dogan, “Effect of expandable graphite on flame retardant, thermal and mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane composites filled with huntite-hydromagnesite mineral,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 647, pp. 70-80, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2016.12.001
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.