Properties of binary and ternary composites of polypropylene containing soybean oil-g-chitosan and hydrophobic phosphonated silica
Keywords:Soybean oil-g-chitosan, Hydrophobic phosphonated silica;, Polypropylene composites, Antimicrobial, Flame retardancy
AbstractPP/soybean oil-g-chitosan binary composite, PP/hydrophobic phosphonated silica binary composite, and PP/chitosan/hydrophobic phosphonated silica ternary composite were prepared. Firstly, the preparation of soybean oil-g-chitosan was carried out by surface hydrophobicity modification of chitosan powder with soybean oil maleate and hydrophobically phosphonated silica was prepared by silanization of phosphonated silica with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (an organosilane). Binary and ternary composites were prepared using a twin screw extruder. It was found that soybean oil-g-chitosan not only caused a decrease in tensile strength but also enhanced flexibility of PP due to its plasticization effect. In the opposite direction, the addition of hydrophobic phosphonated silica resulted in an increase in tensile modulus and a decrease in percent elongation at break due to reinforcement characteristic of silica particle. Effects of soybean oil-g-chitosan and phosphonated silica on antimicrobial activity and flame retardancy property, respectively, were evaluated. Results showed that binary PP composites containing soybean oil-g-chitosan exhibited antimicrobial performance when compared to neat PP. For binary composite containing phosphonated silica, flame resistance was improved which was indicated by relative char content. An addition of soybean oil-g-chitosan led to phosphorus-nitrogen synergism effect (70 % of remaining residue weight at T 450 oC) as found in case of ternary composite containing 1 wt% soybean oil-g-chitosan and 1 wt% phosphonated silica.
Shubhra, Q.T., Alam, A.K., Gafur M.A., Shamsuddin S.M., Khan, M.A., Saha, M.,Daha D., Quaiyyum, M.A., Khan, J.A. and Ashaduzzaman, M. (2010). Characterization of plant and animal based natural fibers reinforced polypropylene composites and their comparative study. Fiber Polym. 11(5): 725-731.
Acha, B.A., Roboredo, M.M. and Marcovich, N.E. (2007). Creep and dynamic mechanical behavior of PP-jute composites : Effect of the interfacial adhesion. Compos. Part A. 38(6): 1507-1516.
Unterweger, C., Duchoslav, J., Stifter, D. and Furst, C. (2015). Characterization of carbon fiber surfaces and their impact on the mechanical properties of short carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 108: 41-47.
Jang, B.P., Kowbel, W. and Jang, B.Z. (1992). Impact behavior and impact-fatigue testing of polymer composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 44(2): 107-118.
Saujanya, C. and Radhakrishnan, S. (2001). Structure development and properties of PET fibre filled PP composites. Polymer. 42(10): 4537-4548.
Omar, M.F., Akil, H.M. and Ahmad, Z.A. (2013). Particle size-Dependent on the static and dynamic compression properties of polypropylene/silica composites. Mater. Des. 45 : 539-547.
Chan, V., Mao, H.Q. and Leong, K.W. (2001). Chitosan-induced perturbation of dipalmitoylsn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane bilayer. Langmuir. 17(12): 3749-3756.
Wang, N., Mi, L., Wu, Y., Wang, X. and Fang, Q. (2013). Enhanced flame retardancy of natural rubber composite with addition of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and MCM-41 fillers. Fire Safety J. 62: 281-288.
Hu, S., Song, L., Pan, H. and Hu, Y. (2012). Thermal Properties and combustion behaviors of chitosan based flame retardant combining phosphorus and nickel. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51(9): 3663-3669.
Schartel, B. (2010). Phosphorus-based flame retardancy mechanisms-old hat or a starting point for future development?. Materials. 3(10): 4710-4745.
Gallo, E. (2009). Progress in polyesters flame retardancy new halogen- free formulations. Ph D Dissertation, UNINA, Naples
Manias, E., Polizos, G., Nakajima, H. and Heidecker, M.J. (2007). Fundamentals of polymer nanocomposite technology. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey. p. 31-66.
Hamada, M. and Yasuda, S. (1982). Flame retardant silicone rubber compositions containing carboxamides. U. S. Patent. No. 4366278A.
Qian, L., Ye, L., Qiu, Y. and Qu, S. (2011). Thermal degradation behavior of the compound containing phosphaphenanthrene and phosphazene groups and its flame retardant mechanism on epoxy resin. Polymer. 52(24): 5486-5493.
Du Pont De Nemours, E.I. and Company. (2012). Compositions élastomères thermoplastiques de copolyester ignifugeantes sans halogène, stables à la chaleur. W. O. Patent No. 2012024280A1.
Sandler, S.R. (1980). Polyamide resins flame retarded by poly(metal phosphinate)s. U. S. Patent No. 4208321A.
Chen, J., Liu, S. and Zhao, J. (2011). Synthesis, application and flame retardancy mechanism of a novel flame retardant containing silicon and caged bicyclic phosphate for polyamide 6(J). Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 96(8): 1508-1515.
Gui, H., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Dong, W., Wang, Q., Gao, J., Song, Z., Lai, J. and Qiao, J. (2007). Effect of dispersion of nano-magnesium hydroxide on the flammability of flame retardant ternary composites. Comp. Sci. Technol. 67(6): 974-980.
Kashiwagi, T., Shields, J.R., Harris, R.H., Jr. and Davis, R.D. (2003). Flame-Retardant Mechanism of Silica : Effects of Resin Molecular Weight. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 87(9): 1541-1553.
Gilman, J.W. (1999). Flammability and thermal stability studies of polymer layered-silicate (clay) nanocomposites. App. Clay Sci. 15(1-2): 31-49.
Kiangkitiwan, N. and Srikulkit, K. (2013). Poly(Lactic Acid) filled with cassava starchg-soybean oil maleate. Sci. World J. 2013: 1-7.
Punyacharoennon, P., Charuchinda, S. and Srikulkit, K. (2008). Grafting and phosphonic acid functionalization of hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer onto ultrafine silica. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 110(6): 3336-3347.
CLSI, Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically : approved standard-Eighth Edition. CLSI document M07-A8, 2009.
Junaidi, M., Khoo, C.P. and Ahmad, A.L. (2014). The effects of solvents on the modification of SAPO-34 zeolite using 3- aminopropyl trimethoxy silane for the preparation of asymmetric polysulfone mixed matrix membrane in the application of CO2 separation. Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 192: 52-59.
Jung, H.Y., Gupta, R.K., Oh, E.O., Kim, Y.H. and Whang, C.M. (2005). Vibrational spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived physical and chemical bonded ORMOSILs. J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 351(5): 372-379.
Srisawat, N., Nithithanakul, M. and Srikulkit, K. (2011). Spinning of fibers from polypropylene/ silica composite resins. J. Compos. Mater. 46: 99-110.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.