Wollastonite and talc reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites: Mechanical, morphological and thermal properties
This study focused on evaluating the mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites containing two different inorganic mineral fillers, namely wollastonite (WO) and talc. The composites were prepared by melt mixing process using a twin screw extruder and an injection molding machine. All composites contained a constant filler loading at 20 wt% with varying WO/talc weight ratios (20/0, 15/5, 10/10, 5/15, and 0/20). Melt flow index (MFI), mechanical properties (impact strength and tensile properties), heat distortion temperature (HDT) fractured surface morphology, and thermal behaviors of the resulting composites were investigated. The results revealed an enhancement in the MFI, HDT, impact strength, Young’s modulus, crystallization temperature, melting temperature, and degree of crystallinity with a decline in the elongation at break and a small increase in the tensile strength of the composites compared to those of the pure PP. These were according to the lubricating effect (increased flowability), reinforcing effects (increased mechanical properties), barrier properties (increased HDT and melting temperature), and nucleating effect (increased crystallization temperature and crystallinity) of the fillers.
E. Saimowski, L. Majewski, and M. Grochowicz, “Influence of the conditions of corotating twin-screw extrusionfor talc-filled polypropylene on selected properties of the extrudate,” Polymers, vol. 11, pp. 1460-1477, 2019.
P. Chaiwutthinan, S. Suwannachot, and A. Larpkasemsuk, “Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polypropylene/ wollastonite composites using PP-g-MA as compatibilizer: Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties,” Journal of Metal, Materials and Minerals, vol. 28, pp. 115-123, 2018.
A. Makhlouf , H. Satha, D. Frihi, S. Gherib , and R. Seguela, “Optimization of the crystallinity of polypropylene/ submicronic-talc composites: The role of filler ratio and cooling rate,” eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol.10, pp. 237-247, 2016.
A. Romankiewicz, T. Sterzynski, and W. Brostow, “Structural characterization of α‐ and β‐nucleated isotactic polypropylene,” Polymer International, vol. 53, pp. 2086-2091, 2004.
B. Chen, and J.R.G. Evans, “Impact strength of polymer-clay nanocomposites,” Soft Material, vol. 5, pp. 3572-3584, 2009.
O. Saravari, H. Waipunya, and S. Chuayjuljit “Effects of ethylene octene copolymer and ultrafine wollastonite on the properties and morphology of polypropylene-based composites”, Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, vol. 46, pp. 175-186, 2014.
S. Chuayjuljit, A. Larpkasemsuk, P. Chaiwutthinan, D. Pongkao Kashima and A. Boonmahitthisud, “Effects of analcime zeolite synthesized from local pottery stone as nucleating agent on crystallization behaviors and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene”, Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology, vol. 24, pp. E85-E95, 2015.
M. Arroyo, R. Zitzumbo, and F. Avalos, “Composites based on PP/EPDM blends and aramid short fibres. Morphology/ behaviour relationship,” Polymer, vol. 41, pp.6351-6359, 2000.
J.Z. Liang, R.K.Y. Li, and S.C. Tjong, “Impact fracture behavior of PP/EPDM/glass bead ternary composites,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 40, pp. 2105-2111, 2000.
Z. Cui, and B. Qu, “Synergistic effects of layered double hydroxide with phosphorus-nitrogen intumescent flame retardant in PP/EPDM/IFR/LDH nanocomposites,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 28, pp. 563-571, 2010.
L.M Racca, E.B.A.V. Pacheco, L.C. Bertolino, C.X.S. Campos, M.C. Andrade, A.M.F. Sousa, and A.L.N. Silva, “Composities based on polypropylene and talc: Processing procedure and prediction behavior by using mathematical models,” Advances in Condensed Matter Physics, vol. 2018, Article ID 6037804.
I. Švab, V. Musil, A. Pustak, and I. Šmit, “Wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene composites modified with novel metallocene EPR copolymers. II. Mechanical properties and adhesion,” Polymer Composites, vol. 30, pp. 1091-1097, 2009.
M.C.G. Rocha, A.H.M.F.T. Silva, F.M.B. Coutinho, and A.L.N. Silva, “Study of composites based on polypropylene and calcium carbonate by experimental design,” Polymer Testing, vol. 24, pp. 1049-1053, 2005.
E.G. Bajsič, V. Rek, and I. Ćosic, “Preparation and characterization of talc filled thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene blends,” Journal of Polymers, vol. 2014, Article ID 289283.
P. Mittal, S. Naresh, P. Luthra, A. Singh, J.S. Dhaliwal, and G.S. Kapur, “Polypropylene composites reinforced with hybrid inorganic fillers: Morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties,” Journal of thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 32, pp. 848-864, 2019.
L. Lapcik, P. Jindrova, B. Lapcikova, R. Tamblyn, R. Greenwood, and N. Rowson, “Effect of the talc filler content on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 110 pp. 2742-2747, 2008.
P. Nanthananon, M. Seadan, S. Pivsa-Art, H. Hamada, and S. Suttiruengwong, “Facile preparation and characterization of short-fiber and talc reinforced poly(lactic acid) hybrid with in situ reactive compatibilizer,” Materials, vol. 11, pp. 1183-1196, 2018.
J. Himani, and P. Jain, “Development of glass fiber, wollastonite reinforced polypropylene hybrid composite: Mechanical properties and morphology,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 527, pp. 1946-1951, 2010.
S.R. Vincent, M. Jaafar, and S. Palaniandy, “Properties of calcium carbonate/mica and calcium carbonate/talc filled polypropylene composites,” Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 10, pp. 41-47, 2014.
Y.W. Leong, Z.A.M. Ishak, and A. Ariffin, “Mechanical and thermal properties of talc and calcium carbonate filled poly-propylene hybrid composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 91, pp. 3327-3336, 2004.
D. Lee, S. Kim, B.-J. Kim, S.-Jin Chun, S.-Y. Lee, and Q. WU, “Effect of nano-CaCO3 and Talc on property and weathering performance of PP composite,” vol. 2017, Article ID 4512378.
L.D. Maxim, and E.E. McConnell, “A Review of the toxicology and epidemiology of wollastonite,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 17, pp. 451-466, 2005.
L. Lapčík, D. Maňas, B. Lapčíková, M. Vašina, M. Staněk, K. Čépe, J. Vlček, K.E. Waters, R.W. Greenwood, and N.A. Rowson, “Effect of filler particle shape on plastic-elastic mechanical behavior of high density poly(ethylene)/mica and poly(ethylene)/wollastonite composites,” Composites Part B, vol. 141, pp. 92-99, 2018.
M. Cambelová, and A. Juck, “Fibrogenic effect of wollastonite compared with asbestos dust and dusts containing quartz,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 51, 343-346, 1994.
O. Balkan, A. Ezdeesir, and H. Demirer, “Microstructural characteristics or glass bead and wollastonite-filled isotactic-polypropylene composites modified with thermoplastic elastomers,” Polymer Composites, vol. 31, pp. 1265-1284, 2010.
A.S. Luyt, M.D. Dramicanin, Z. Antic, and V. Djokovic, “Morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of composites of polypropylene and nanostructures wollastonite filler,” Polymer Testing, vol. 28, pp. 348-356, 2009.
D. Sinnaih, “Industry and cosmetic uses of talc with their implication on health,” IeJSME, vol. 5, pp. 10-16, 2011.
H.M. King, “Talc: The softest mineral,” Geoscience News and Information, Geology. Com.
R. Shadal, A. Dasari, J, Rohrmann, and R. D. KMisra, “Effect of wollastonite and talc on the micromechanisms of tensile deformation in polypropylene composites,” Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 372, pp. 296-315, 2004.
M. Kodal, S. Erturk, S. Sanli, and G. Ozkoc, “Properties of talc/wollastonite/polyamide 6 hybrid composites,” Polymer Composites, vol. 36, pp. 739-746, 2015.
A. Ariffin, A.S Mansor, S.S Jikan and Z.A. Mohd. Ishak, “Evaluation of hybridizing talc and surface-treated kaolin on the properties of PP hybrid composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 29, pp. 3429-3441, 2010
M.B.A. Bakar, W.Y. Leong, A. Ariffin, and Z.A. Mohd. Ishak, “Mechanical, flow, and morphological properties of talc- and kaolin-filled polypropylene hybrid composite,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 104, 434-441, 2007.
V. Khunova, and M. Sain, “Optimization of mechanical strength
of reinforced composites. 2. Reactive bismaleimide‐modified polypropylene composites filled with talc and zeolite,” Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie, vol. 225, pp. 11-20, 2003.
A.V. Shenoy, and D.R. Saini, “Melt flow index: More than just a quality control rheological parameter. Part II,” Advances in Polymer Technology, 1986.
M.B.A. Bakar, Z.A. Mohd. Ishak, R.M. Taib, H.D. Rozman, and S.M. Jani, “Flammability and mechanical properties of wood flour-filled polypropylene, composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, pp. 2714-2722, 2010.
P. Chaiwutthinan, S. Chuayjuljit, S. Srasomsub, and A. Boonmahitthisud, “Composites of poly(lactic acid)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blend with wood fiber and wollastonite: Physical properties, morphology, and bio-degradeability,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 136, pp. 47543, 2019.
Y. Zhang, C. Yu, P.K. Chu, F. Lv, C. Zhang, J. Ji, R. Zhang, and H. Wang, “Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 133, pp. 845-849, 2012.
X. Wangi, S. Hu, Y. Guo, G. Li, and R. Xu, “Toughened high-flow polypropylene with polyolefin-based elastomers,” Polymers, vol. 11, pp. 1976-1989, 2019.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.