Wood plastic composites based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(butylene adipate-<i>co</i>-terephthalate)
Keywords:WPCs, Recycled PET, Poly(butylene adipate-coterephthalate), Wood flour, Mechanical and thermal properties, Morphology
In this work, wood plastic composites (WPCs) were prepared from a selected recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend ratio. The 70/30 (wt%/wt%) (rPET)/PBAT blend was incorporated with six loadings of wood flour (WF) (5â€“30 wt%) through melt mixing on a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The mechanical properties of the WPCs, in terms of the impact, tensile and flexural strength, Youngâ€™s modulus and elongation at break were determined as a function of the WF content. The results showed that the impact strength and elongation at break of the WPCs were all lower than those of the neat blend. However, the WPCs at 5â€“15 wt% WF and all had higher impact strength and elongation at break than the neat rPET, respectively. In contrast, the tensile strength of all the WPCs was much lower than that of the neat rPET, and only at high WF content (20â€“30 wt%) exhibited higher tensile strength than the neat blend. In addition, the Youngâ€™s modulus and flexural strength of the WPCs were all higher than those of the neat blend. However, the WPCs at 5 and 10 wt% WF had lower Youngâ€™s modulus than the neat rPET, while all the WPCs had lower flexural strength than the neat rPET. Moreover, the WF acted as a nucleating agent, which consequently gave rise to the increased crystallization temperature, degree of crystallinity and melting temperature of the rPET component in WPCs, as revealed by the differential scanning calorimetry. However, thermogravimetric analysis showed a decrease in the thermal stability of the rPET/PBAT blend upon addition of WF. Meanwhile, all the WPCs exhibited an enhanced water uptake over the neat blend (up to 5.7-fold at 30 wt% WF).
S. K. Najafi, “Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites-A review”, Waste Management, vol. 33, pp. 1898-1905, 2013.
S. K. Najafi, M. M. Marznaki and M. Chaharmahali, “Effect of thermomechanical degradation of polypropylene on mechanical properties of wood-polypropylene composites”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 43, pp. 2543-2555, 2009.
A. Ashori and A. Nourbakhsh, “Characteristics of wood-fiber plastic composites made of recycled materials”, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 1291-1295, 2009.
T. Huq, A. Khan, T. Akter, N. Noor, and K. Dey, “Thermo-mechanical, degradation, and interfacial properties of jute fiber-reinforced PET-based composite”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Materials, vol. 24, pp. 889-898, 2011.
Y. Zong, Y. Cheng and G..Dai, “The relationship between rheological behavior and toughening mechanism of toughened poly(ethylene terephthalate). Journal of Composite Materials vol. 42, pp. 1571-1585, 2008.
Y. Srithep, A. Javadi, S. Pilla, L.S. Turng, S. Gong, C. Clemons, J. Peng, “Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)”, Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 51, pp. 1023-1032, 2011.
N.M. Abdullah and I. Ahmad, “Potential of using reinforced coconut fiber composites derived from recycling polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste”, Fibers and Polymers, vol. 14, pp. 584-590, 2013.
H. Nabil, H. Ismail and A.R. Azura, “Recycled polyethylene terephthalate filled natural rubber compounds: effects of filler loading and types of matrix”, Journal of Elastomers and Plastics, vol. 43, pp. 429-449, 2011.
Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, L. Ni, et al. Crystallization and mechanical properties of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) toughened by styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene elastomer”, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 18, pp. 647-653, 2010.
N. Kerboua, N. Cinausero, T. Sadoun and J.M. Lopeze-Cuesta, “Effect of organoclay in an immiscible poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste/ poly (methyl methacrylate) blend”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science”, vol. 117, pp. 129-137, 2010.
S. Mbarek and M. Jaziri, “Recycling poly (ethylene terephthalate) wastes: properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends and the effect of a transesterification catalyst”, Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 46, pp. 1378-1386, 2006.
P. Phinyocheep, J. Saelao and J.Y. Buzaré, “Mechanical properties, morphology and molecular characteristics of poly(ethylene terephthalate) toughened by natural rubber”, Polymer, vol. 48, pp. 5702-5712, 2007.
K. Oksman, M. Skrifvars and J.F. Selin, “Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites”, Composite Science and Technology, vol. 63, pp. 1317-1324, 2013.
E. Petinakis, L. Yu, G. Edward, K. Dean, H. Liu and A.D. Scully, “Effect of matrix-particle interfacial adhesion on the mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/wood-flour micro-composites.”, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 17, pp. 83-94, 2009.
Y.J. Phua, W.S. Chow and Z.A. Mohd Ishak, “Poly(butylene succinate)/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites: effects of the organoclay content on mechanical, thermal, and moisture absorption properties”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Materials, vol. 24, pp. 133-151, 2011.
R.A. Khan, A.J Parsons, I.A. Jones, G.S. Walkers and C.D. Rudd, “Effectiveness of 3- aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane as a coupling agent for phosphate glass fiber-reinforced poly(caprolactone)-based composites for fracture fixation devices”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Materials, vol. 24, pp. 517-534, 2011.
A.S. Hadj-Hamou, S.Matssi, H. Abderrahmane and F. Yahiaoui, “Effect of cloisite 30B on the thermal and tensile behavior of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(vinyl chloride) nanoblends”, Polymer Bulletin, vol. 71, pp. 1483-1503, 2014.
N.R. Savadekar, P.G. Kadam and S.T. Mhaske, “Studies on the effect of nano-alumina on the performance properties of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) composite films”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Material, vol. 28, pp. 1522-1536, 2015.
X. Zhou, A. Mohanty and M. Misra, “A new biodegradable injection moulded bioplastic from modified soy meal and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate: effect of plasticizer and denaturant”, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 21, pp. 615-622, 2013.
S. Chuayjuljit, P. Chaiwutthinan, L. Raksaksri and A. Boonmahitthisud, “Effects of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and ultrafined wollastonite on the physical properties and crystallization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)”, Journal of Vinyl & Additives Technology, vol. 23, pp. 106-116, 2017.
B. Kord, D.T. Haratbar, B. Malekian and S. Ismaeilimoghadam, “Effect of chemical modification of wood flour on long-term hygroscopic behavior of polypropylene composites”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Materials, vol. 2, pp. 577-588, 2016.
Y. Karaduman and L. Onal, “Dynamaic mechanical and thermal properties of enzymetreated jute/ polyester composites”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 47, pp. 2361-2370, 2012.
C. Homkhiew, T. Ratanawilai and W. Thongruang, “Long-term water absorption and dimensional stability of composites from recycled polypropylene and rubberwood flour”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Material, vol. 29, pp. 74-91, 2014.
M. Poletto, M. Zeni and A. Zattera, “Effect of wood flour addition and coupling agent content on mechanical properties of recycled polystyrene/wood flour composites”, Journal of Thermoplastic and Composite Material, vol. 25, pp. 821-833, 2011.
D. Ndiaye and A.Tidjani, “Effects of coupling agents on thermal behavior and mechanical properties of wood flour/polypropylene composites”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 46, pp. 3067-3075, 2012.
S. Chuayjuljit, C. Wongwaiwattanakul, P. Chaiwutthinan and P. Prasassarakich, “Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene succinate)/wood flour composites: physical and morphological properties”, Polymer Composites, vol. 38, pp. 2841-2851, 2017.
S. Chuayjuljit, J. Kongthan, P. Chaiwutthinan, and A. Boonmahitthisud, “Poly(vinyl chloride)/ poly(butylene succinate)/wood flour composites: physical properties and biodegradability”, Polymer Composites, vol. 39, pp. 1543-1552, 2017.
J. Dou and Z. Liu, “Crystallization behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/ pyrrolidinium ionic liquid”, Polymer International, vol. 62, pp. 1698-1710, 2013.
A.M. Diez-Pascual and A.L. Diez-Vicente, “Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/ZnO bionanocomposites with improved mechanical, barrier and antibacterial properties”, International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 15, pp. 10950-10973, 2014.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.