Hot ductility and hot-shortness of steel and measurement techniques: A review
Usage of steel scrap has become important in steel making from the view points of resource conservation and preventing environmental problems. High levels of steel scraps are used in the production of steel, especially, via electric arc furnaces (EAF). However, Copper, which is mainly contained in the scrap of cars and home electronic appliance, is problematic in mechanical workings at elevated temperatures and limits the usage of scrap iron. It is enriched at steel/scale interface by preferential oxidation of Fe, which leads to liquid embrittlement or surface cracking during hot working. This type of defect is well known as surface hot shortness. Cu has been also reported to give surface cracking problem including transverse cracking in continuously cast products and has been found to be detrimental to surface quality. While nickel and silicon have been added to prevent hot shortness and cracking problem, tin, antimony and arsenic are detrimental. Silicon modifies scale of copper-bearing steels and promotes internal oxidation by the formation of 2FeO.SiO2 (fayalite). The evaluation techniques of hot shortness and cracking problem are also equally important and are mainly evaluated by hot tensile and hot bend test after oxidation. In addition to this, hot tensile test has been also used for evaluating hot ductility behaviour and surface cracks of continuously cast products.
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