Effect of Al Addition on Crystal Structure of AlGaN/GaN on GaAs (001) Substrate Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy


  • Nattamon SUWANNAHARN Nanoscience and Technology Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand
  • Sakuntam SANORPIM Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand
  • Suphakan KIJAMNAJSUK National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand
  • Visittapong YORDSRI National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand
  • Noppadon NUNTAWONG 4National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand
  • Kentaro ONABE 5Department of Advanced Material Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8561, Japan




III-N Semiconductor, Crystal Structure, X-ray Diffraction, TEM, MOVPE


Effects of Al addition on a structural phase modification in AlGaN/GaN films on GaAs  substrate grown by MOVPE have been investigated. To examine the effect of Al addition, AlGaN/GaN films were grown with varied a molar flow ratio of TMAl to the total group-III elements of 0, 0.15, and 0.30. Quantity of hexagonal phase incorporation was evaluated by the ratios of integrated XRD intensity of hexagonal  plane to cubic  plane from reciprocal space mappings. The diffraction geometry factor was considered in the calculation. The results suggest that GaN primarily contains a hexagonal phase with a small fraction of a cubic phase (15%). With Al addition, a hexagonal phase inclusion significantly decreased. The fraction of a cubic phase becomes dominant (66%) and overcomes a hexagonal phase inclusion. As a result, with an addition of Al, our result demonstrates a structural phase modification from hexagonal to cubic phases in the AlGaN/GaN films on GaAs . Besides, TEM image and selective area diffraction patterns indicated that the structural phase might transform through stacking faults. Moreover, the area of the flat surface seen from AFM images indicated a cubic  plane, therefore, can briefly comparatively predict the amount of cubic phase in the AlGaN/GaN films.


Download data is not yet available.


D. S. Patil, Semiconductor laser diode technology and applications. InTech, 2012.

M. O. Manasreh III and V. N. Semiconductors, “Defects and Structural Properties.” Elsevier Science, 2000.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 3675–3696, Sep. 2003, doi: 10.1063/1.1600519.

İ. Muz and M. Kurban, “A first-principles evaluation on the interaction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole with pristine and B-, Al-, Ga-doped C60 fullerenes,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 335, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2021.116181.

M. Kurban and İ. Muz, “Theoretical investigation of the adsorption behaviors of fluorouracil as an anticancer drug on pristine and B-, Al-, Ga-doped C36 nanotube,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 309, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2020.113209.

İ. Muz and M. Kurban, “A comprehensive study on electronic structure and optical properties of carbon nanotubes with doped B, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, N, P and As and different diameters,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 802, pp. 25–35, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.06.210.

W. Yang et al., “Control of two-dimensional growth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN-based MQWs for deep-UV LEDs,” AIP Adv., vol. 3, no. 5, p. 052103, May 2013, doi: 10.1063/1.4804247.

Y. C. Tsai and C. Bayram, “Structural and Electronic Properties of Hexagonal and Cubic Phase AlGaInN Alloys Investigated Using First Principles Calculations,” Sci. Rep., vol. 9, no. 1, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43113-w.

A. der M. M, P. A, P. G, R. W, and D. C. A, “Efficiency Drop in Green InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes: The Role of Random Alloy Fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 116, no. 2, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.116.027401.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, no. 19, p. 191109, May 2009, doi: 10.1063/1.3133359.

F. Mireles, S. E. Ulloa, F. Mireles, and S. E. Ulloa, “Acceptor binding energies in GaN and AlN,” PhRvB, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 3879–3887, 1998, doi: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.58.3879.

C. G. Rodrigues et al., “Hole mobility in zincblende c–GaN,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 95, no. 9, p. 4914, Apr. 2004, doi: 10.1063/1.1690865.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The blue laser diode: GaN based light emitters and lasers. Springer, 1997.

D. Ahn and S.-H. Park, “Optical gain of strained hexagonal and cubic GaN quantum‐well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, no. 22, pp. 3303–3305, Nov. 1996, doi: 10.1063/1.117287.

D. Bouguenna, A. Boudghene Stambouli, N. Mekkakia Maaza, A. Zado, and D. J. As, “Comparative study on performance of cubic AlxGa1−xN/GaN nanostructures MODFETs and MOS-MODFETs,” Superlattices Microstruct., vol. 62, pp. 260–268, Oct. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.spmi.2013.08.001.

A. Radosavljević, J. Radovanović, V. Milanović, and D. Indjin, “Cubic GaN/AlGaN based quantum wells optimized for applications to tunable mid-infrared photodetectors,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 2014 474, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 865–872, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1007/S11082-014-0016-Y.

N. Zainal, S. V. Novikov, A. V. Akimov, C. R. Staddon, C. T. Foxon, and A. J. Kent, “Hexagonal (wurtzite) GaN inclusions as a defect in cubic (zinc-blende) GaN,” Phys. B Condens. Matter, vol. 407, no. 15, pp. 2964–2966, Aug. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.physb.2011.08.088.

D. Cai and J. Kang, “Thickness-Dependent Phase Transition of AlxGa1-xN Thin Films on Strained GaN,” J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 110, no. 21, pp. 10396–10400, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1021/jp0573801.

M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 987–999, Oct. 2001, doi: 10.1002/sia.1134.

A. Cros, H. Angerer, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, R. Hopler, and T. Metzger, “Raman study of the optical phonon in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Solid State Commun., vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1997.

D. G. Zhao et al., “Parasitic reaction and its effect on the growth rate of AlN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. 72–75, Mar. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.11.083.

C. H. Chen et al., “A study of parasitic reactions between NH3 and TMGa or TMAl,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1004–1008, Jun. 1996, doi: 10.1007/BF02666736.

M. E. Coltrin, J. Randall Creighton, and C. C. Mitchell, “Modeling the parasitic chemical reactions of AlGaN organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. 566–571, Jan. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.077.

H. Tsuchiya, K. Sunaba, S. Yonemura, T. Suemasu, and F. Hasegawa, “Cubic Dominant GaN Growth on (001) GaAs Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, no. Part 2, No. 1A/B, pp. L1–L3, Jan. 1997, doi: 10.1143/JJAP.36.L1.




How to Cite

N. SUWANNAHARN, S. SANORPIM, S. KIJAMNAJSUK, V. YORDSRI, N. NUNTAWONG, and K. ONABE, “Effect of Al Addition on Crystal Structure of AlGaN/GaN on GaAs (001) Substrate Grown by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 41–47, Mar. 2022.



Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)