Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures deposited on mesh through electrochemical deposition and thermal oxidation


  • Chantana AIEMPANAKIT Division of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110, Thailand
  • Thongchai PHANTAPORN Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121, Thailand
  • Kamon AIEMPANAKIT Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121, Thailand




ZnO nanostructure, thermal oxidation, photocatalytic activity


This article reported that the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were modified by the thermal oxidation process at different temperatures in the range of 200℃ to 600℃ for 1 h. The Zn films were deposited on a stainless steel mesh by using the electrochemical deposition technique. The elemental composition of Zn and O was exhibited via energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy in which the atomic ratio of O/Zn increased with the increase of oxidation temperature. The results showed that oxidation temperature has a significant effect on the morphological and crystal structure. The nanosheet structure of the as-deposited film transferred to the intermixing of porous nanosheet and urchin-like structure at the oxidation temperature of 600℃ while the crystallinities of mixing Zn and ZnO were improved to only ZnO when increasing the oxidation temperature. ZnO films were tested for photocatalytic activity in methylene blue under various ultraviolet irradiation times. The best condition of ZnO for photocatalytic activity was an oxidation temperature of 600℃ with the highest crystallinity and surface area that showed the highest decomposition rate and percentage degradation of 8.150 ´ 10-3 min-1 and 74.06%, respectively.


Metrics Loading ...


M. A. Borysiewicz, “ZnO as a functional material,” Crystals, vol. 9, no. 10, 505 pp. 1-29, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9100505

K. Rajesh, O. Al-Dossary, K. Girish, and U. Ahmad, “Zinc oxide nanostructures for NO2 gas–sensor applications: A Review,” Nano-Micro Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 97-120, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-014-0023-3

C. B. Ong, L.Y. Ng, and A.W. Mohammad, “A review of ZnO nanoparticles as solar photocatalysts: synthesis, mechanisms and applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 81, pp. 536-551, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.020

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D.B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Applied Physics A, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 35-38. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-004-2920-7

U. Ozgur, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” Journal of applied physics, vol. 98, p. 041301, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1992666

L. Yan, J. Li, W. Li, F. Zha, H. Feng, and D. Hu, “A photo-induced ZnO coated mesh for on-demand oil/water separation based on switchable wettability,” Materials Letters, vol. 163, pp. 247-249, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2015.10.051

M.-H. Hsu, and C.-J. Chang, "Ag-doped ZnO nanorods coated metal wire meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts with high visible-light driven photoactivity and photostability,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 278, pp. 444-453, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.06.038

M. Jouya, F .Taromian, and M. Afshari Abolkarlou, “Growth of Zn thin films based on electric field by thermal evaporation method and effect of oxidation time on physical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 31, pp. 8680-8689, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-03403-w

P. Basnet, and S. Chatterjee, “Structure-directing property and growth mechanism induced by capping agents in nanostructured ZnO during hydrothermal synthesis - A systematic review,” Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, vol. 22, p. 100426, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2020.100426

B. Du, J. Jiang, J. Li, and W. ZHU, “Effects of ZnO magnetron sputtering on surface charge and flashover voltage of oil-impregnated paper,” High Voltage, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 308-315, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/hve.2019.0070

I. Haq, J. Jacob, K. Mehboob, K. Mahmood, A. Ali, N. Amin, and F. Ashraf, “Effect of annealing temperature on the thermos-electric properties of ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 606, p. 412569, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2020.412569

J. Li, J. Cai, Z. Wu, J. Wang, and Y. Pei, “Numerical simulation and study of the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of ZnO film,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 31, p. 027104, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5082337

I. Mihailova, V. Gerbreders, E. Tamanis, E. Sledevskis, R. Viter, and P. Sarajevs, “Synthesis of ZnO nanoneedles by thermal oxidation of Zn thin films,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 377, pp. 212-216, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2013.05.003

D. Yuvaraj, and K.N. Rao, “Selective growth of ZnO nanoneedles by thermal oxidation of Zn microstructures,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 164, pp. 195-199, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2009.09.010

J. R. Torres-Hernández, E. Ramírez-Morales, L. Rojas-Blanco, J. Pantoja-Enriquez, G. Oskam, F. Paraguay-Delgado, and G. Pérez-Hernández, “Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles modified with Cu,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 37 pp. 87-92, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2015.02.009

T. Dikici, “Temperature-dependent growth of ZnO structures by thermal oxidation of Zn coatings electrodeposited on steel substrates and their photocatalytic activities,” Ceramics International, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 8289-8293, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.03.162

F. Wu, C. Wang, H. Marvin, K. Vinodgopal, and G.P. Dai, “Large area synthesis of vertical aligned metal oxide nanosheets by thermal oxidation of stainless steel mesh and foil,” Materials, vol. 11, no. 6, p. 884, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060884

H. Rojas-Chavez, H. Cruz-Martínez, F. Montejo-Alvaro, R. Farías, Y. M. Hernández-Rodríguez, A. Guillen-Cervantes, and O. E. Cigarroa-Mayorga, “The formation of ZnO structures using thermal oxidation: How a previous chemical etching favors either needle-like or cross-linked structures,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol.108, p. 104888, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2019.104888

I. Boukhoubza, M. Khenfouch, M. Achehboune, B.M. Mothudi, I. Zorkani, and A. Jorio, “X-ray diffraction investigations of nanostructured ZnO coated with reduced graphene oxide,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1292, p. 012011, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1292/1/012011

L. Yuan, C. Wang, R. Cai, Y. Wang, and G. Zhou, “Spontaneous ZnO nanowire formation during oxidation of Cu-Zn alloy,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 114, p. 023512, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4812569

D. Kim, and J.Y. Leem, “Catalyst-free synthesis of ZnO nanorods by thermal oxidation of Zn films at various temperatures and their characterization,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nano-technology, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 5826-5829, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2017.14139

S. H. Kim, A. Umar, and Y. B. Hahn, “Growth and formation mechanism of sea urchin-like ZnO nanostructures on Si,” Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 22, pp. 489-493, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02719432

M. R. Khanlary, V. Vahedi, and A. Reyhani, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn thin films at various temperatures,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 5021-5029, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17055021

D. F. Swinehart, “The Beer-Lambert Law,” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 39, no. 7, p. 333, 1962. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ed039p333

J. Leitner, V. Bartunek, D. Sedmidubský, O. Jankovský, “Thermodynamic properties of nanostructured ZnO,” Applied Materials Today, vol. 10, pp. 1-11, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2017.11.006

N. S. Ridhuan, K. A. Razak, Z. Lockman, and A. A. Aziz, “Structural and morphology of ZnO nanorods synthesized using ZnO seeded growth hydrothermal method and its properties as UV sensing,” PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 11, p. e50405, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050405

R. Ma, L. Xiang, X. Zhao, and J. Yin, “Progress in Preparation of Sea Urchin-like Micro-/Nanoparticles,” Materials, vol. 15, pp. 2846, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082846

M. Ballesteros-Balbuena, G. Roa-Morales, A. R. Vilchis-Nestor, V. H. Castrejón-Sánchez, E. Vigueras-Santiago, P. Balderas-Hernández, and M. Camacho-López, “Photocatalytic urchin-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures synthetized by thermal oxidation,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 244, p. 122703, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2020.122703

Y. A. Shaban, M. A. El Sayed, A. A. El Maradny, R. K. Al Farawati, and M. I. Al Zobidi, “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in natural seawater using visible light active carbon modified (CM)-n-TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light and natural sunlight illumination,” Chemosphere, vol. 91, pp. 307-313, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.11.035




How to Cite

C. AIEMPANAKIT, T. PHANTAPORN, and K. AIEMPANAKIT, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures deposited on mesh through electrochemical deposition and thermal oxidation”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 63–69, Jun. 2022.



Original Research Articles