Influence of water content on structural and electrochromic properties of TiO\(_{2}\) nanotube prepared by anodization


  • Chantana AIEMPANAKIT Division of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110, Thailand
  • Pathomporn JUNBANG Department of Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkokthonburi University, Thawi Watthana, Bangkok, 10170, Thailand
  • Watchara SUPHAP Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121, Thailand
  • Kamon AIEMPANAKIT Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University



TNTs, anodization, Annealing, energy gap, electrochromic


TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) and bamboo-type TNTs structure films were synthesized via anodization from sputtered titanium (Ti) films on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Herein, the anodization process was adjusted electrolyte with different amounts of deionized water and ethylene glycol. The optical and structural properties of all films before and after annealing were investigated, which affected electrochromic application. The increasing deionized water content in electrolytes resulted in an increase in the average diameter and a decrease in the average length of TNTs. Furthermore, the bamboo-type TNTs structure was produced at the deionized water volume condition of 3 vol%. The crystallite size of annealed TNTs (a-TNTs) was calculated from the Scherrer equation, which was enhanced when increasing deionized water. TNTs conditions before annealing showed that the amorphous structure and high energy band gap (Eg) exhibited more electrochromic phenomena than the crystal structure. Due to the disordered arrangement of structures, it was easy to insert ions in TNTs. The bamboo-like structure with separate tubes increased the surface area of the reaction, thus exhibiting the best electrochromic properties with ΔT equal to 12.58%.


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How to Cite

C. AIEMPANAKIT, P. JUNBANG, W. . SUPHAP, and K. AIEMPANAKIT, “Influence of water content on structural and electrochromic properties of TiO\(_{2}\) nanotube prepared by anodization”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 33, no. 3, p. 1680, Jul. 2023.



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