Effects of the tempering on mechanical properties of dual phase steels


  • Thipwipa Sirinakorn Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi
  • Vitoon Uthaisangsuk Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi
  • S Srimanosaowapak


Dual Phase steels, Tempering, Microstructures, Hole expansion test


Dual Phase (DP) steels have been gradually used in the automotive industries because of their distinguished strength and ductility properties. Principally, microstructure of the DP steels contains defined amount of hard martensite islands dispersed in soft ferrite matrix. This microstructure characteristic and corresponding mechanical properties of the DP steels can be adjusted by heat treatment. In this work, effects of tempering temperature and time on tensile properties of DP steels were investigated. Continuous yielding behavior of tempered DP steels was observed up to around a temperature of 300°C. At higher tempering temperature, DP steels showed distinct increased yield point. Furthermore, ultimate tensile strength decreased and elongation increased, when the tempering temperature and time were elevated. The investigated DP steel, which was tempered at 200ºC for 60 min, exhibited optimal combination of strength and ductility. Additionally, stretch-flangeability of the DP steels was examined. Three types of hole manufacturing process, namely, drilling, blanking and wire cut, were taken into account.  It was found that formability of the DP steel sheets was significantly affected by quality of the hole edge. The samples prepared by wire cutting resulted in highest hole expansion ratio, since it caused the least prior damage.


Download data is not yet available.


Kadkhodapour, J., Butz, A., Ziaei-Rad, S. and Schmauder, S. (2011). A micro mechanical study on failure initiation of dual phase steels under tension using single crystal plasticity model. Int. J. Plas. 27(7) : 1103- 1125.

Prawoto, Y., Fanone, M., Shahedi, S., Ismail, M.S. and Wan Nik, W.B. (2012). Computational approach using Johnson-Cook model on dual phase steel. Comput. Mater. Sci. 54(1) : 48-55.

Vajragupta, N., Uthaisangsuk, V., Schmaling, B., Munstermann, S., Hartmaier, A. and Bleck, W. (2012). A micromechanical damage simulation of dual phase steels using XFEM. Comput. Mater. Sci. 54 : 271-279.

Uthaisangsuk, V., Prahl, U. and Bleck, W. (2009). Characterisation of formability behaviour of multiphase steels by micromechanical modeling. Int. J. Fracture. 157(1-2) : 55-69.

Ramazani, A., Mukherjee, K., Quade, H., Prahl, U. and Bleck, W. (2013). Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach. Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 560(1) : 129-139.

Ramazani, A., Mukherjee, K., Schwedt, A., Goravanchi, P., Prahl, U. and Bleck, W. (2012). Quantification of the effect of transformation-induced geometrically necessary dislocations on the flow-curve modelling of dual-phase steels. Int. J. Plasticity. 43 : 128-152.

Bag, A., Ray, K.K. and Dwarakadasa, E.S. (1999). Influence of martensite content and morphology on tensile and impact properties of high-martensite dual-phase steels. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 30A(5) : 1193-1202.

Anazadeh, S.A. and Kheriandish, S.H. (2012). Affect of the tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steels. Mater. Sci. Eng. 532(1) : 21-25.

Gündüz, S. (2009). Effect of chemical composition, martensite volume fraction and tempering on tensile behaviour of dual phase steels. Mater. Lett. 63(27) : 2381-2383.

Kamp A., Celotto S., Hanlon D.N., 2012. Effects of tempering on the mechanical properties of high strength dual-phase steels. Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 538(1) : 35-41.

Rèche, D., Besson, J., Sturel, T., Lemoine, X., Gourgues-Lorenzon, A.F. (2012). Analysis of the air-bending test using finite-element simulation : Application to steel sheets. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 57(1) : 43-53.

Kaupper, M. and Merklein, M. (2013). Bendability of advanced high strength steels - A new evaluation procedure. CIRP Ann.- Manuf. Techn. 62(1) : 247-250.

Zadpoor, A.A., Campoli, G., Sinke, J. and Benedictus, R. (2011). Fracture in bending - The straining limits of monolithic sheets and machined tailor-made blanks. Mater. Des. 32(3) : 1229-1241.

Dünckelmeyer , M., Karelová, A., Krempaszky, C. and Werner, E. (2009). Instrument hole expansion test. Proceedings of International Doctoral Seminar. Slovakia : Smolenice Castle.

Sartkulvanich, P., Kroenauer, B., Golle, R., Konieczny, A. and Altan, T. (2010). Finite element analysis of the effect of blanked edge quality upon stretch flanging of AHSS. CIRP Ann.- Manuf. Techn. 59 : 279- 282.

Chung, K., Ma, N., Park, T., Kim, D., Yoo, D. and Kim, C. (2011). A modified damaged model for advanced high strength steel sheets. Int. J. Plast. 27(10) : 1485-1511.

Sodjit, S. and Uthaisangsuk, V. (2012). Microstructure based prediction of strain hardening behaviour of dual phase steels. Mater. Des. 41(1) : 370-379.

Ramazani, A., Schwedt, A., Aretz, A., Prahl, U. and Bleck, W. (2013). Characterization and modelling of failure initiation in DP steel. Comp. Mater. Sci. 75 : 35-44.




How to Cite

T. . Sirinakorn, V. Uthaisangsuk, and S. Srimanosaowapak, “Effects of the tempering on mechanical properties of dual phase steels”, J Met Mater Miner, vol. 24, no. 1, Jun. 2014.



Original Research Articles