Electrodeposition of Zn/TiO<sub>2</sub> composite coatings for anode materials of Zinc ion battery
Keywords:Zn-ion battery, Zn anode, Electrodeposition, Plating-stripping, Specific capacity
AbstractResearchers are paying more attention to Zinc ion battery (ZIB) because of the environment-friendly and low cost. However, the dendrite growth during cycling of Zn anode is still limited its long-term stability. Therefore, we report the electrodeposition of nano TiO2 into Zn coatings and apply this composite coating for the anode materials of ZIBs. The Zn coatings and Zn/TiO2 composite coatings in the electrolyte have been deposited on the stainless-steel foil and applied as the battery electrode. The plating/stripping testing in the symmetric cell demonstrate that the incorporation of TiO2 into Zn coatings can decrease the overpotential between plating and stripping curves. In addition, nano flower MnO2 as the cathode was synthesized by using hydrothermal method. The galvanostatic charge-discharge tests reveal that the Zn/TiO2//MnO2 aqueous batteries exhibit the higher rate ability and cycle performance than those of Zn//MnO2 batteries.
Q. Fang, B. Song, T.-T. Tee, L. T. Sin, D. Hui, and S.-T. Bee, “investigation of dynamic characteristics of nano-size calcium carbonate added in natural rubber vulcanizate,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 60, pp. 561-567, 2014.
M. M. Kamal, J. Clarke, and M. A. Ahmad, “Comparison of properties of natural rubber compounds with various fillers,” Journal of Rubber Research, vol. 12(1), pp. 27-44, 2009.
I. Khan and A. Bhat, “Micro and nano calcium carbonate filled natural rubber composites and nanocomposites,” in: RSC Polymer Chemistry Series No. 8 Natural Rubber Materials, Volume 2: Composites and Nanocomposites. Ed. by S. Thomas, H. J. Maria, J. P. Joy, C. H. Chan, and L. A. Pothen, London: Royal Society of Chmistry, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 467-487.
C. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Zhao, H. Bala, and Z. Wang, “Synthesis of nanosized calcium carbonate (aragonite) via a polyacrylamide inducing process.,” Powder Technology, vol. 163, pp. 134-138, 2006.
L. Liang, Y. C. Lam, K. C. Tam, T. H. Chua, G. W. Sim, and L. S. Ang, “Strengthening acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with nano-sized and micron-sized calcium carbonate,” Polymer, vol. 46, pp. 243-252, 2005.
S. Manroshan and A. Baharin, “Effect of nanosized calcium carbonate on the mechanical properties of latex films,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 96, pp. 1550- 1556, 2005.
S. S. Fernandez and S. Kunchandy, “Comparative study of the cure and mechanical properties of natural rubber/expandable graphite vulcanizate filled with nano and precipitated calcium carbonate,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 25(15), pp. 8638-8642, 2013.
S. Attharangsan, H. Ismail, M. A. Bakar, and J. Ismail, “Carbon black (CB)/rice husk powder (RHP) hybrid filler-filled natural rubber composites: effect of CB/RHP ratio on property of the composites,” Polymer-Plasts Technology and Engineering, vol. 51(7), pp. 655-662, 2012.
S. Prasertsri, C. Vudjung, I. Wunchai., S. Srichan, K. Sapprasert, and J. Kongon, “Comparison of reinforcing efficiency between calcium carbonate/carbon black and calcium carbonate/silica hybrid filled natural rubber composites,” Defect and Diffusion Forum, vol. 382, pp. 94-98, 2018,
A. Oyetunji, R. Umunakwe, B. O. Adewuyi, U. S. Nwigwe, and I. J. Umunakwe, “Evaluating the properties of nanoparticles of calcium carbonate obtained from the shells of african giant land snails (Achatina achatina) via in situ deposition technique,” UPB Scientific Bulletin: Series B Chemistry and Materials Science, vol 81(1), pp. 85-94, 2019.
ASTM D 3184-89, “Standard Test Method for Rubber-Evaluation of Natural Rubber (Natural Rubber),” in: Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA, 1989.
ASTM D 412-06a, “Standard Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers—Tension,” in: Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA, 2006.
ISO 7619-1:2010, “Rubber, Vulcanized or Thermoplastic—Determination of Indentation Hardness—Part 1: Durometer Method (Shore hardness),” ISO Standard, 2010.
ISO 4649:2010 (E), “Rubber, Vulcanized or Thermoplastic - Determination of Abrasion Resistance using a Rotating Cylindrical Drum Device,” ISO Standard, 2010.
ASTM D D 395 – 03 (2003), “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Property—Compression Set,” in: Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, USA, 2003.
I. O. Igwe and A. A. Ejim, “Studies on mechanical and end-use properties of natural rubber filled with snail shell powder,” Materials Sciences and Application, vol. 2, pp. 802-810, 2011.
H. Norazlina, A. R. M. Fahmi, and W. M. Hafizuddin, “CaCO3 from sea shells as a reinforcing filler for natural rubber,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, vol. 8, pp. 1481-1488, 2015.
M. Galimberti, V. Cipolletti, and V. Kuma, “Nanofillers in natural rubber,” in: Natural Rubber Materials: Volume 2: Composites and Nanocomposites. Ed. by S. Thomas, C. H. Chan, L. Pothen, J. Joy, and H. Maria. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, ISBN:978-1-84973-631-2, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
G. Heinrich, and T. A. Vilgis, “Contribution of entanglements to the mechanical properties of carbon blackfilled polymer networks”, Macromolecules, vol. 26, pp. 1109-1119, 1993.
J.-B. Donnet, and E. Custodero, (2013). “Reinforcement of elastomers by particulate fillers,” in: The Science and Technology of Rubber 4th Edition. Ed by J. E. Mark, B. Erman, and R. C. Michael. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, 2014, pp. 383-416.
F. M. Nejad, M. Tolouei, H. Nazari, and A. Naderan, A., “Effects of calcium carbonate nanoparticles and fly ash on mechanical and permeability properties of concrete,” Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, vol. 7(1), pp. 651-668, 2018.
Z. H. Li, J. Zhang, and S. J. Chen, “Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber”, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol. 2(10), pp. 95-704, 2008.
Z. G. Abdulkadhim, “Influence calcium carbonate nano-particles CaCO3 on mechanical properties for NR compound,” International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, vol. 14(2), pp. 114-117, 2014.
J. Johns, and V. L. Rao, “Thermal stability, morphology and x-ray diffraction studies on dynamically vulcanized natural rubber chitosan blend,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 44, pp. 4087-4094, 2009.
I. L. Haridan, “A Comparative Study of Natural Rubber Modified with Ground Tire Rubber of Truck”. Barcelona: Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 2016.
J. T. Varkey, S. Augustine, and S. Thomas, “Thermal deegrdation of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber latex blend blends by themogravimetric method,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 39(3), pp. 415-435, 2000.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.